Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode


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L2/15-278R 2015-12-31

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode Anshuman Pandey Department of Linguistics University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, U.S.A. [email protected] December 31, 2015

1

Introduction

This is a proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode. It supersedes the following document: • L2/12-214 “Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Rohingya Script” Apart from editoral improvements, the major changes from the preliminary proposal include: • • • •

2

New names for several characters Redefinition of character properties Unification of the Rohingya tatweel with the corresponding Arabic character Inclusion of tables showing positional forms of letters

Background

The Hanifi Rohingya script (𐴝𐴙𐴒𐴢𐴙𐴝𐴗𐴟𐴌 ruwainggya, 𐴝𐴙𐴒𐴢𐴙𐴝𐴇𐴟𐴌 ruhainggya) is used for writing Rohingya (ISO 639-3: rhg), an Indo-Aryan language spoken by one million people in Myanmar (Rakhine State) and by two-hundred thousand people in Bangladesh (Cox’s Bazaar District). Rohingya is also spoken in several other countries as a result of the dispersion of the Rohingya community on account of persecution in Myanmar. The Rohingya language is closely related to Bengali. There are four different scripts used for writing the Rohingya language: Burmese, Arabic, the Latin-based ‘Rohingylish’, and the present script. The script was developed by Maulana Mohammed Hanif and others in the 1980s. A chart showing the script as approved by a steering committee is shown in figure 1. It is modeled upon the Arabic script and shows the influence of other scripts. However, it is a constructed script and has no direct genetic affiliation to other scripts. There is limited information available on the Hanifi Rohingya script in English. Most of the materials on the script are written in the Rohingya language. The Rohingya Language Committee and the Rohingya Education Board Myanmar have published multilingual primers of the script (see figures 3–16). There are also instructional videos available on YouTube (see figures 23–24). Educational materials and newspapers are published the script. Two typefaces have been developed by Muhammad Noor (see table 5). 1

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

3 3.1

Anshuman Pandey

Script Details Structure

Hanifi Rohingya is an alphabetic script modeled upon Arabic. It is written right to left. Consonant letters possess an inherent vowel /ɔ/. The inherent vowel is changed by placing a vowel mark after the consonant. The inherent vowel is silenced by placing a special mark after a consonant letter. Three types of tone are indicating using combining signs placed above a letter or vowel mark. Nasalization is indicated using a mark placed after a letter or vowel mark. Consonant gemination is indicated using a sign placed above a letter. The script is structurally conjoining. Letters join to following letters at the right edge at the baseline. In several hand-written sources, the conjunction between letters is broken at the baseline. This does not indicate any particular joining property of the unattached letter to the left of break. In texts printed using digitized fonts, the connections between letters at the baseline is consistently maintained. Positions forms of consonants and marks are given in tables 1 and 2. 3.2

Character names

Names for characters are based upon Latin transliterations for Rohignya characters given in various script primers (see tables 3 and 4). The names have been normalized in accordance with naming conventions for Indic scripts. This approach aligns with the Latin names given for the majority of characters across different publications. There are, however, different spellings for certain characters. For example, 𐴋 is named ‘rda’ in one source and r̄ a’ in another; 𐴈 is alternately called ‘xa’; 𐴒 is also called ‘gha’. The 𐴚 is known as gan and 𐴛 is known as nayya. In cases where there are multiple names for a character, an appropriate name has been chosen based upon consultation with the user community. Names for tonal signs and other marks are based upon Indigenous names. 3.3

Representative glyphs

The representative glyphs are derived from the “Rohingya Gonya Leyka Noories” typeface developed by Muhammad Noor. The glyphs are used with permission. Original glyphs have been modified and additional glyphs have been introduced by the proposal author. 3.4

Letters

There are 28 letters: Character name

Joining

Value

𐴀

dual

/ɔ/, /ʔ/

𐴁

dual

/b/

𐴂

dual

/p/

𐴃

dual

/t/

𐴄

dual

/ʈ/

𐴅

dual

/ɟ/

2

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

𐴆

dual

/c/

𐴇

dual

/h/

𐴈

dual

/x/

𐴉

dual

/f/

𐴊

dual

/d/

𐴋

dual

/ɖ/

𐴌

dual

/ɾ/

𐴍

dual

/ɽ/

𐴎

dual

/z/

𐴏

dual

/s/

𐴐

dual

/ʃ/

𐴑

dual

/k/

𐴒

dual

/g/

𐴓

dual

/l/

𐴔

dual

/m/

𐴕

dual

/n/

𐴖

dual

/ʋ/, /v/

𐴗

dual

/u/

𐴘

dual

/j/

𐴙

dual

/i/

𐴚

dual

/ŋ/

𐴛

dual

/ɲ/

The letter is a vowel carrier. It represents the vowel /ɔ/. The letters (‘kinna wa’) and (‘kinna ya’) are used for representing /u/ and /i/ in diphthongs (see section 3.7). The letter  was previously used for representing /v/. Usage of this letter has been discontinued. The letter 𐴖 is now used in its place. It may be neccessary to encode  (* if it occurs in published material.

3

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode 3.5

Anshuman Pandey

Vowel silencer

The following character is used for indicating a bare consonant: Character name

𐴜 The Rohingya sakin is similar in function to sequence, as shown below. b

𐴜𐴁



p

𐴜𐴂



t

𐴜𐴃



ْ

Joining

Value

right

— . It is placed after a letter in the encoded

+ 0652

The is generally used with letters that occur in isolation or at the end of a word. There is no formal convention regarding its usage and it may be considered optional. For instance, the charts in figures 3, 4, and 5 show written with certain consonants, yet the chart in figure 6 shows the sign written with every consonant letter. When does occur, it is used generally with the following letters:

3.6

𐴜𐴁

𐴁

𐴜𐴈 𐴈

𐴜𐴒 𐴒

𐴜𐴂

𐴂

𐴜𐴉 𐴉

𐴜𐴓

𐴓

𐴜𐴃

𐴃

𐴜𐴊 𐴊

𐴜𐴖

𐴖

𐴜𐴄 𐴄

𐴜𐴏 𐴏

𐴜𐴗

𐴗

𐴜𐴇 𐴇

𐴜𐴐 𐴐

𐴜𐴙

𐴙

Final forms of letters

The following alternate forms are proposed for encoding: Character name

Joining

Value

𐴧

right

/d/

𐴨

right

/l/

𐴩

right

/m/

These final forms are semantically and phonologically equivalent to the regular letter followed by sakin. They are used in word-final position or for representing the bare form of the respective consonant in isolated contexts.

4

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

𐴧

=

𐴜𐴊

𐴨

=

𐴜𐴓

𐴩

=

𐴜𐴔

,𐴜

Anshuman Pandey

The final letters may analyzed as stylistic representations of the above sequences. However, both representations occur in the available sources. They are proposed for inclusion in the repertoire in order to enable the complete encoding of Rohingya texts containing the final forms. 3.7

Vowel marks

There are 5 vowel marks: Character name

Joining

Value

𐴝

dual

/a/

𐴞

dual

/i/

𐴟

dual

/u/

𐴠

dual

/e/

𐴡

dual

/o/

When vowels occur in word-initial position, they are represented using a combination of the letter vowel mark: a

𐴀



ā

𐴝𐴀



When modifying a consonant, they are placed after the letter:

5

and a

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode bā

𐴝𐴁



Script charts show the vowel marks independently, unaccompanied by the letter . These cases are intended for illustrating the mark and are not indicative of actual usage; the same applies to the other marks shown alongside the vowel marks in charts. Independent or initial vowels are expressed in combination with the letter . 3.8

Diphthongs

Diphthongs are represented by placing 𐴙 and represents the sound /i/ and represents /u/:

3.9

𐴙

after a vowel mark. The

bai

𐴙𐴁



Nasalization mark

The following character is used for marking nasalization: Character name

𐴢

Joining

Value

dual

/n/

It is placed after the consonant or vowel mark to be nasalized: baṃ

𐴢𐴁



Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode 3.10

Anshuman Pandey

Tonal Signs

There are three tonal signs: ◌𐴣 ◌𐴤 ◌𐴥 Their properties are as follows: name

tone type

Arabic analogue

◌𐴣

hārbahay

short high tone

◌࣪ + 08EA ◌࣭ + 08ED

◌𐴤

ṭelā

long falling tone

◌࣫ + 08EB ◌࣮ + 08EE

◌𐴥

ṭānā

long rising tone

◌࣬ + 08EC ◌࣯ + 08EF

The placement of tonal signs in the available sources is imprecise and not uniform. In some instances they are placed between the consonant and a vowel mark, in others they are positioned above the consonant, and in others upon the vowel; compare the placement of tones 2 and 3 in Figure 10, or compare lines 1 and and 2 and the examples in Figure 13.) These may be considered stylistic choices. In the encoded representation, a tone sign is placed after a consonant letter, but if a vowel mark is present, the tone sign may be placed either before or after the mark, depending upon orthography: bá

𐴝𐴀





𐴝𐴀



baa

𐴝𐴀



3.11 Gemination sign The following character is used for indicating consonant gemination: ◌𐴦 7

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

ّ

+ 0651 The Rohingya tassi is based upon and similar in function to . It is positioned above the letter that is doubled. The sign is placed after the respective letter in the encoded sequence:

baba

𐴁𐴁



babba

𐴁𐴁



If there is a vowel mark after the doubled letter, then the sequence:

𐴝𐴁𐴁

babbā 3.12



Digits

There is a full set of decimal digits:

𐴰

𐴵

𐴱

𐴶

𐴲

𐴷

𐴳

𐴸

𐴴

𐴹

As in Arabic, the Rohingya digits are written from left to right. The Arabic style ٠ is attested as a glyphic variant for 𐴰 . 3.13

Punctuation

There is no script-specific punctuation. The + 002E as the ، + 060C and ‫ ؟‬+ 061F 3.14

is commonly used, as are Arabic signs, such .

‘Tatweel’

A tatweel-like character is used for graphical elongation or justification. The ‫ ـ‬+ 0640 should be used for representing tatweel in Rohingya. 3.15

Collation

The sort order for Hanifi Rohingya is as follows:

𐴀

<

𐴝

𐴠 𐴆

< <

<

𐴇

<

𐴞

𐴡 𐴈

< <

𐴟

<

𐴉

<

𐴁

<

𐴧

<

𐴂 <

8

<

𐴊

𐴃

< <

𐴋

𐴄

< <

𐴌

𐴅

< <

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

𐴍 𐴩

<

𐴎 <

𐴙

<

The letters 𐴧 by the mark 𐴜

.

<

𐴐

<

𐴔

<

𐴒

<

,𐴨

𐴏

<

𐴢 𐴘 ,𐴩

𐴑 <

<

𐴕

Anshuman Pandey

𐴒

< <

<

𐴖

4.1

Unicode Character Data ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA

𐴗

are to be sorted equally to 𐴊

Character Properties

10D00;HANIFI 10D01;HANIFI 10D02;HANIFI 10D03;HANIFI 10D04;HANIFI 10D05;HANIFI 10D06;HANIFI 10D07;HANIFI 10D08;HANIFI 10D09;HANIFI 10D0A;HANIFI 10D0B;HANIFI 10D0C;HANIFI 10D0D;HANIFI 10D0E;HANIFI 10D0F;HANIFI 10D10;HANIFI 10D11;HANIFI 10D12;HANIFI 10D13;HANIFI 10D14;HANIFI 10D15;HANIFI 10D16;HANIFI 10D17;HANIFI 10D18;HANIFI 10D19;HANIFI 10D1A;HANIFI 10D1B;HANIFI 10D1C;HANIFI 10D1D;HANIFI 10D1E;HANIFI 10D1F;HANIFI 10D20;HANIFI 10D21;HANIFI 10D22;HANIFI 10D23;HANIFI 10D24;HANIFI 10D25;HANIFI 10D26;HANIFI 10D27;HANIFI 10D28;HANIFI

𐴓

<

<

<

𐴘

<

𐴜

Further research is needed for determining if the collation order for 𐴗 or secondary.

4

<

𐴨

LETTER A;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER BA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER PA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER TA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER TTA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER JA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER CA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER HA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER KHA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER FA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER DA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER DDA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER RA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER RRA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER ZA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER SA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER SHA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER KA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER GA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER LA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER MA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER NA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER WA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER SMALL WA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER YA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER SMALL YA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER NGA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER NYA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; MARK SUKUN;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; VOWEL MARK A;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; VOWEL MARK I;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; VOWEL MARK U;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; VOWEL MARK E;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; VOWEL MARK O;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; MARK NA KHANNA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; SIGN HARBAHAY;Mn;230;NSM;;;;;N;;;;; SIGN TAHALA;Mn;230;NSM;;;;;N;;;;; SIGN TANA;Mn;230;NSM;;;;;N;;;;; SIGN SHADDA;Mn;230;NSM;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER FINAL DA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; LETTER FINAL LA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;;

9

,𐴓

,𐴔

and 𐴙

when followed is primary

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode 10D29;HANIFI 10D30;HANIFI 10D31;HANIFI 10D32;HANIFI 10D33;HANIFI 10D34;HANIFI 10D35;HANIFI 10D36;HANIFI 10D37;HANIFI 10D38;HANIFI 10D39;HANIFI

4.2

LETTER FINAL MA;Lo;0;AL;;;;;N;;;;; DIGIT ZERO;Nd;0;AN;;0;0;0;N;;;;; DIGIT ONE;Nd;0;AN;;1;1;1;N;;;;; DIGIT TWO;Nd;0;AN;;2;2;2;N;;;;; DIGIT THREE;Nd;0;AN;;3;3;3;N;;;;; DIGIT FOUR;Nd;0;AN;;4;4;4;N;;;;; DIGIT FIVE;Nd;0;AN;;5;5;5;N;;;;; DIGIT SIX;Nd;0;AN;;6;6;6;N;;;;; DIGIT SEVEN;Nd;0;AN;;7;7;7;N;;;;; DIGIT EIGHT;Nd;0;AN;;8;8;8;N;;;;; DIGIT NINE;Nd;0;AN;;9;9;9;N;;;;;

Arabic Shaping Data

10D00; 10D01; 10D02; 10D03; 10D04; 10D05; 10D06; 10D07; 10D08; 10D09; 10D0A; 10D0B; 10D0C; 10D0D; 10D0E; 10D0F; 10D10; 10D11; 10D12; 10D13; 10D14; 10D15; 10D16; 10D17; 10D18; 10D19; 10D1A; 10D1B; 10D1C; 10D1D; 10D1E; 10D1F; 10D20; 10D21; 10D22; 10D27; 10D28; 10D29;

4.3

ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA

HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI

ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA

LETTER A; D; A LETTER BA; D; BA LETTER PA; D; PA LETTER TA; D; TA LETTER TTA; D; TTA LETTER JA; D; JA LETTER CA; D; CA LETTER HA; D; HA LETTER KHA; D; KHA LETTER FA; D; PA LETTER DA; D; DA LETTER DDA; D; DDA LETTER RA; D; RA LETTER RRA; D; RRA LETTER ZA; D; ZA LETTER SA; D; SA LETTER SHA; D; SHA LETTER KA; D; KA LETTER GA; D; GA LETTER LA; D; LA LETTER MA; D; MA LETTER NA; D; NA LETTER WA; D; WA LETTER SMALL WA; SMALL WA LETTER YA; D; YA LETTER SMALL YA; D; SAKIN LETTER NGA; D; NGA LETTER NYA; D; NYA MARK SAKIN; R; MARK SAKIN VOWEL MARK A; D; VOWEL MARK A VOWEL MARK I; D; NA KHANNA VOWEL MARK U; D; VOWEL MARK U VOWEL MARK E; D; VOWEL MARK E VOWEL MARK O; D; VOWEL MARK O MARK NA KHANNA; D; NA KHANNA LETTER FINAL DA; R; FINAL DA LETTER FINAL LA; R; FINAL LA LETTER FINAL MA; R; FINAL MA

Script Extensions

The following characters should be extended for usage in Rohingya: 0640 ; # Lm

ARABIC TATWEEL

10

Anshuman Pandey

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode 060C ; # Po 061B ; # Po 061F ; # Po

4.4

Anshuman Pandey

ARABIC COMMA ARABIC SEMICOLON ARABIC QUESTION MARK

‘Confusable’ Characters

Some Rohingya letters resemble those found of Arabic. Attention to these ‘confusables’ is particularly important because Arabic is commonly used in Rohingya documents. 10D03 10D07 10D08 10D09 10D0B 10D0C 10D11 10D12 10D13 10D14 10D19 10D1D 10D1D 10D1E 10D24 10D25 10D26

5

HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI HANIFI

ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA ROHINGYA

LETTER PA LETTER HA LETTER KHA LETTER FA LETTER DDA LETTER RRA LETTER KA LETTER GA LETTER LA LETTER MA LETTER SMALL YA LETTER NA KHANNA LETTER NA KHANNA VOWEL MARK A SIGN TONE-2 SIGN TONE-3 SIGN SHADDA

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

0648 06BE 06A9 06CF 0637 0637 0637 FECB 0644 FEE3 FE91 0632 FEE7 FEBB 0654 0653 0651

ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC ARABIC

LETTER WAW LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE LETTER KEHEH LETTER WAW WITH DOT ABOVE LETTER TAH LETTER TAH LETTER TAH LETTER AIN INITIAL FORM LETTER LAM LETTER MEEM INITIAL FORM LETTER BEH INITIAL FORM LETTER ZAIN LETTER NOON INITIAL FORM LETTER SAD INITIAL FORM HAMZA ABOVE MADDAH ABOVE SHADDA

References

noorismail52. 2011a. “Rohingya mother Language (letters) Part 1.flv”. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=w4h6w6NyvOU

———. 2011b. “Rohingya mother Language (letters) Part 3.flv”. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= pylvjjTQG8c

Pandey, Anshuman. 2012. “Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Rohingya Script” (L2/12-214). June 20, 2012. http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2012/12214-rohingya.pdf Rohingya Education Board Myanmar. Ruhainggya Zubanor Fonna: Hisab [“Script of the Rohingya language: Counting”]. Ek kelasottu dui kelas: lego ar foro [“From Class 1 to Class 2: Read and Write”]. Rohingya Language Committee. [A]. Kayda Ruwainggya Zubanor [Primer of the Rohingya Language]. ———. [B]. Ruwaingya Zubanor Foyla Kitab [First Book of the Rohingya Language].

6

Acknowledgments

I am thankful to Mattias Persson and Ian James for bringing the Rohingya script to my attention. Lorna Priest introduced me to James Lloyd-Williams, who very generously provided copies of Rohingya primers. I am all the more grateful to Muhammad Noor, who provided me with numerous books and other materials written and printed in the script. This proposal would not be possible without the assistance of these individuals.

11

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

This project was made possible in part through a Google Research Award, granted to Deborah Anderson for the Script Encoding Initiative, and a grant from the United States National Endowment for the Humanities (PR-50205-15), which funds the Universal Scripts Project (part of the Script Encoding Initiative at the University of California, Berkeley). Any views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of Google or the National Endowment for the Humanities.

12

10D00

Hanifi Rohingya

10D3F

10D0 10D1 10D2 10D3 0

𐴀 𐴐 𐴠

10D00

1

10D35

10D16

10D26

10D36

10D17

10D27

10D37

10D18

10D28

10D38

10D19

10D29

10D39

10D1A

10D1B

10D1C

10D1D

10D1E

𐴏 𐴟

10D0F

Printed using UniBook™ (http://www.unicode.org/unibook/)

10D25

𐴎 𐴞 10D0E

F

10D15

𐴍 𐴝 10D0D

E

10D34

𐴌 𐴜

10D0C

D

10D24

𐴋 𐴛 10D0B

C

10D14

𐴊 𐴚

10D0A

B

10D33

𐴉 𐴙 𐴩 𐴹

10D09

A

10D23

𐴈 𐴘 𐴨 𐴸

10D08

9

10D13

𐴇 𐴗 𐴧 𐴷 10D07

8

𐴲

10D32

𐴆 𐴖 $𐴦 𐴶

10D06

7

10D22

𐴅 𐴕 $𐴥 𐴵

10D05

6

10D12

𐴱

10D31

𐴄 𐴔 $𐴤 𐴴 10D04

5

10D21

10D30

𐴃 𐴓 $𐴣 𐴳

10D03

4

10D11

𐴂 𐴒 𐴢

10D02

3

10D20

𐴁 𐴑 𐴡

10D01

2

10D10

𐴰

10D1F

1

10D00

Hanifi Rohingya

Letters 10D00 10D01 10D02 10D03 10D04 10D05 10D06 10D07 10D08 10D09 10D0A 10D0B 10D0C 10D0D 10D0E 10D0F 10D10 10D11 10D12 10D13 10D14 10D15 10D16 10D17

𐴀 𐴁 𐴂 𐴃 𐴄 𐴅 𐴆 𐴇 𐴈 𐴉 𐴊 𐴋 𐴌 𐴍 𐴎 𐴏 𐴐 𐴑 𐴒 𐴓 𐴔 𐴕 𐴖 𐴗

HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER A HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER BA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER PA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER TA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER TTA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER JA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER CA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER HA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER KHA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER FA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER DA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER DDA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER RA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER RRA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER ZA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER SA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER SHA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER KA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER GA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER LA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER MA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER NA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER WA HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER SMALL WA

10D39

10D28 𐴨 HANIFI ROHINGYA FINAL LETTER LA 10D29 𐴩 HANIFI ROHINGYA FINAL LETTER MA

Digits 10D30 10D31 10D32 10D33 10D34 10D35 10D36 10D37 10D38 10D39

𐴰 𐴱 𐴲 𐴳 𐴴 𐴵 𐴶 𐴷 𐴸 𐴹

HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT ZERO HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT ONE HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT TWO HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT THREE HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT FOUR HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT FIVE HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT SIX HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT SEVEN HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT EIGHT HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT NINE

= kinna wa

10D18 𐴘 HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER YA 10D19 𐴙 HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER SMALL YA

= kinna ya

10D1A 𐴚 HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER NGA

= gan

10D1B 𐴛 HANIFI ROHINGYA LETTER NYA

= nayya

Vowel silencer

10D1C 𐴜 HANIFI ROHINGYA SIGN SAKIN

Vowel marks

10D1D 𐴝 HANIFI ROHINGYA VOWEL MARK A

= aa-for

10D1E 𐴞 HANIFI ROHINGYA VOWEL MARK I

= i-for

10D1F 𐴟 HANIFI ROHINGYA VOWEL MARK U

= u-for

10D20 𐴠 HANIFI ROHINGYA VOWEL MARK E

= e-for

10D21 𐴡 HANIFI ROHINGYA VOWEL MARK O

= o-for

Nasalization mark

10D22 𐴢 HANIFI ROHINGYA MARK NA KHANNA

Tone marks 10D23 $𐴣 HANIFI ROHINGYA SIGN HARBAHAY

• short high tone

10D24 $𐴤 HANIFI ROHINGYA SIGN TAHALA

• long falling tone

10D25 $𐴥 HANIFI ROHINGYA SIGN TANA

• long rising tone

Gemination sign 10D26 $𐴦 HANIFI ROHINGYA SIGN TASSI

Final letters

10D27 𐴧 HANIFI ROHINGYA FINAL LETTER DA

Printed using UniBook™ (http://www.unicode.org/unibook/)

2

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Character name

Joining

Anshuman Pandey

Final

Medial

Initial

𐴀

dual





𐴀

𐴁

dual





𐴁

𐴂

dual





𐴂

𐴃

dual





𐴃

𐴄

dual





𐴄

𐴅

dual





𐴅

𐴆

dual





𐴆

𐴇

dual





𐴇

𐴈

dual





𐴈

𐴉

dual





𐴉

𐴊

dual





𐴊

𐴋

dual





𐴋

𐴌

dual





𐴌

𐴍

dual





𐴍

𐴎

dual





𐴎

𐴏

dual





𐴏

𐴐

dual





𐴇

𐴑

dual





𐴑

𐴒

dual





𐴒

𐴓

dual





𐴓

𐴔

dual





𐴔

𐴕

dual





𐴕

𐴖

dual





𐴖

𐴗

dual





𐴗

𐴘

dual





𐴘

𐴙

dual





𐴙

𐴚

dual





𐴚

𐴛

dual





𐴛

Table 1: Positional forms of consonant letters.

15

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Character name

Joining

Anshuman Pandey

Final

Medial

Initial

𐴝

dual





𐴝

𐴞

dual





𐴞

𐴟

dual





𐴟

𐴠

dual





𐴠

𐴡

dual





𐴡

𐴜

right





𐴜

𐴢

dual





𐴢

Table 2: Positional forms of various marks.

16

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Proposed character name

Anshuman Pandey

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

𐴀

Aa

AA

AA

𐴁

Ba

BA

BA

𐴂

Pa

PA

PA

𐴃

Ta

TA

THA

𐴄

Tda

TA

TA

𐴅

Ja

JA

JA

𐴆

Cha

CHA

CHA

𐴇

Ha

HA

HA

𐴈

Kha

KHA

KHA

𐴉

Pha

FA

FA

𐴊

Da

THA

DHA

𐴋

Dha

DA

DA

𐴌

Ra

RA

RA

𐴍

Rda

R̄A

RDA

𐴎

Za

ZA

ZA

𐴏

Sa

SA

SA

𐴐

Sha

SHA

SHA

𐴑

Ka

KA

KA

𐴒

Ga

GA

GHA

𐴓

La

LA

LA

𐴔

Ma

MA

MA

𐴕

Na

NA

NA

𐴖

Wa

WA

WA

𐴗

Kinnawa

KINNA WA

KINNAWA

𐴘

Ya

YA

YA

Kinnaya

KINNA YA

KINNAYA

𐴚

Nga

GAN

GHAN

𐴛

Naiya

NAYYA

NAYA

𐴙

Table 3: Romanized names for Rohingya letters as given in various sources.

17

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Proposed character name

Anshuman Pandey

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

𐴝

Aafor

AFOR

AFOR

𐴞

Efor

[I]FOR

EIFOR

𐴟

Ufor

UFOR

UOFOR

𐴠

Aefor

EFOR

EAFOR

𐴡

Ofor

OFOR

WOFOR

𐴜







𐴢

Nakhonna

NAKONNA

NAKHANNA

◌𐴣

Haarbai

HARBAY

HAR BAY

◌𐴤

Tela

TELA

TAHA LA

◌𐴥

Tana

TANA

TA NA

◌𐴦

Tossi

TASSI

TASSI

Table 4: Romanized names for Rohingya marks as given in various sources.

18

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 1: A document containing the Rohingya script as finalized by Hanif and others on February 19, 1980, with signatures of the individuals involved in the creation of the script.

19

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 2: Description of some characters attached to the official chart shown in figure 1.

20

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 3: Chart of Rohingya script from a hand-written primer (from Ruwainggya Zuban Komiti (A): 1).

21

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 4: Chart showing Rohingya letters and signs with Urdu and Burmese names.

22

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 5: Chart showing Rohingya letters with Arabic correspondences and names in Latin transliteration.

23

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 6: Chart showing Rohingya letters with Latin transliteration.

24

Anshuman Pandey

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 7: Page from a Rohingya primer showing Rohingya letters with names in Arabic transliteration.

25

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 8: Page from a Rohingya primer showing the method of writing .

26

Anshuman Pandey

𐴝

and

𐴞

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 9: Page from a Rohingya primer showing the method of writing 𐴟 ,𐴡 .

27

Anshuman Pandey

,𐴠

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 10: Page from a Rohingya primer showing the method of writing 𐴢 -1, ◌

𐴤

-2, ◌

𐴥

-3, ◌

𐴦

.

28

Anshuman Pandey

,◌

𐴣

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 11: Page from a Rohingya primer describing the use of 𐴗

29

Anshuman Pandey

and 𐴙

.

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 12: Page from a Rohingya primer showing the use of tatweel.

30

Anshuman Pandey

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 13: Table showing use of tonal signs from a hand-written primer (from Ruwainggya Zuban Komiti (A): 11).

31

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 14: Example of running Rohingya text from a hand-written primer (from Ruwainggya Zuban Komiti (B): 1).

32

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 15: Chart of digits from a hand-written primer (from Ruwainggya Zuban Komiti (B): 34).

33

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 16: Excerpt from an primary-level arithmetic book written in Rohingya (from Ruwainggya Education Board Myanmar: 21).

34

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 17: The cover page of Haq-Dar, a Rohingya language news weekly (December 5, 2002).

35

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 18: The cover page of Serak, a Rohingya language news weekly (October 13, 2007).

36

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 19: Cover page of History of Arakan. The vertical breaks in the letters 𐴃 title word 𐴕𐴝𐴑𐴌𐴝𐴀 𐴜𐴈𐴞𐴌𐴝𐴃 tarikh arakan are stylistic.

37

Anshuman Pandey

and 𐴌

in the

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 20: First page of History of Arakan.

38

Anshuman Pandey

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Figure 21: Cover of World Atlas.

39

Anshuman Pandey

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 22: Page from World Atlas showing Myanmar (with the Arakan region highlighted) and Bangladesh.

40

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

Figure 23: Use of a Rohingya typeface in a digital video (from noorismail52 2011a: frame 3). The first character shown is 𐴱 .

Figure 24: Use of a Rohingya typeface in a digital video (from noorismail52 2011b: frame 103). The first character shown is the number 𐴱𐴱 ‘11’ .

41

Proposal to encode the Hanifi Rohingya script in Unicode

Anshuman Pandey

G

K

G

K

G

K

𐴀

𐴀

𐴑

𐴑

𐴢

𐴢

𐴁

𐴁

𐴒

𐴒

◌𐴣

◌𐴣

𐴂

𐴂

𐴓

𐴓

◌𐴤

◌𐴤

𐴃

𐴃

𐴔

𐴔

◌𐴥

◌𐴥

𐴄

𐴄

𐴕

𐴕

◌𐴦

◌𐴦

𐴅

𐴅

𐴖

𐴖

𐴰

𐴰

𐴆

𐴆

𐴗

𐴗

𐴱

𐴱

𐴇

𐴇

𐴘

𐴘

𐴲

𐴲

𐴈

𐴈

𐴙

𐴙

𐴳

𐴳

𐴉

𐴉

𐴚

𐴚

𐴴

𐴴

𐴊

𐴊

𐴛

𐴛

𐴵

𐴵

𐴋

𐴋

𐴜

𐴜

𐴶

𐴶

𐴌

𐴌

𐴝

𐴝

𐴷

𐴷

𐴍

𐴍

𐴞

𐴞

𐴸

𐴸

𐴎

𐴎

𐴟

𐴟

𐴹

𐴹

𐴏

𐴏

𐴠

𐴠

𐴐

𐴐

𐴡

𐴡

Table 5: Comparison of digitized Rohingya typefaces: “Rohingya Gonya Leyka Noories” (‘G’) and “Rohingya Kuna Leyka Noories” (‘K’) designed by Muhammad Noor.

42

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