Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018

Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018 sind u.a. folgendeFragen: Wann können Stromnetze volatile Wind- und Solarenergie speichern? Wie sind die Stromübertragungsnetze ausgelegt? Können Spitzenlastsituationen abgedeckt werden? Die Tagung ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den Wissens- und Gedankenaustausch von Forschern und Entwicklern aller Unternehmen und Institutionen, die Antworten auf diese Fragen suchen.

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Proceedings

Johannes Liebl Hrsg.

Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018 Wege zusammenführen 3. Internationale ATZ-Fachtagung

Proceedings

Ein stetig steigender Fundus an Informationen ist heute notwendig, um die immer komplexer werdende Technik heutiger Kraftfahrzeuge zu verstehen. Funktionen, Arbeitsweise, Komponenten und Systeme entwickeln sich rasant. In immer schnelleren Zyklen verbreitet sich aktuelles Wissen gerade aus Konferenzen, Tagungen und Symposien in die Fachwelt. Den raschen Zugriff auf diese Informationen bietet diese Reihe Proceedings, die sich zur Aufgabe gestellt hat, das zum Verständnis topaktueller Technik rund um das Automobil erforderliche spezielle Wissen in der Systematik aus Konferenzen und Tagungen zusammen zu stellen und als Buch in Springer.com wie auch elektronisch in Springer Link und Springer Professional bereit zu stellen. Die Reihe wendet sich an Fahrzeug- und Motoreningenieure sowie Studierende, die aktuelles Fachwissen im Zusammenhang mit Fragestellungen ihres Arbeitsfeldes suchen. Professoren und Dozenten an Universitäten und Hochschulen mit Schwerpunkt Kraftfahrzeug- und Motorentechnik finden hier die Zusammenstellung von Veranstaltungen, die sie selber nicht besuchen konnten. Gutachtern, Forschern und Entwicklungsingenieuren in der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie sowie Dienstleistern können die Proceedings wertvolle Antworten auf topaktuelle Fragen geben. Today, a steadily growing store of information is called for in order to understand the increasingly complex technologies used in modern automobiles. Functions, modes of operation, components and systems are rapidly evolving, while at the same time the latest expertise is disseminated directly from conferences, congresses and symposia to the professional world in ever-faster cycles. This series of proceedings offers rapid access to this information, gathering the specific knowledge needed to keep up with cutting-edge advances in automotive technologies, employing the same systematic approach used at conferences and congresses and presenting it in print (available at Springer.com) and electronic (at Springer Link and Springer Professional) formats. The series addresses the needs of automotive engineers, motor design engineers and students looking for the latest expertise in connection with key questions in their field, while professors and instructors working in the areas of automotive and motor design engineering will also find summaries of industry events they weren’t able to attend. The proceedings also offer valuable answers to the topical questions that concern assessors, researchers and developmental engineers in the automotive and supplier industry, as well as service providers.

Weitere Bände in der Reihe http://www.springer.com/series/13360

Johannes Liebl (Hrsg.)

Netzintegration der Elektro­ mobilität 2018 Wege zusammenführen 3. Internationale ATZ-Fachtagung

Hrsg. Johannes Liebl Moosburg, Deutschland

ISSN 2198-7440  (electronic) ISSN 2198-7432 Proceedings ISBN 978-3-658-23393-8  (eBook) ISBN 978-3-658-23392-1 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8 Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen National­ bibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. Springer Vieweg © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 Das Werk einschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorherigen Zustimmung des Verlags. Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielfältigungen, Bearbeitungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen. Die Wiedergabe von Gebrauchsnamen, Handelsnamen, Warenbezeichnungen usw. in diesem Werk berechtigt auch ohne besondere Kennzeichnung nicht zu der Annahme, dass solche Namen im Sinne der Warenzeichen- und Markenschutz-Gesetzgebung als frei zu betrachten wären und daher von jedermann benutzt werden dürften. Der Verlag, die Autoren und die Herausgeber gehen davon aus, dass die Angaben und Informa­ tionen in diesem Werk zum Zeitpunkt der Veröffentlichung vollständig und korrekt sind. Weder der Verlag noch die Autoren oder die Herausgeber übernehmen, ausdrücklich oder implizit, Gewähr für den Inhalt des Werkes, etwaige Fehler oder Äußerungen. Der Verlag bleibt im Hinblick auf geografische Zuordnungen und Gebietsbezeichnungen in veröffentlichten Karten und Institutionsadressen neutral. Verantwortlich im Verlag: Markus Braun Springer Vieweg ist ein Imprint der eingetragenen Gesellschaft Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH und ist ein Teil von Springer Nature Die Anschrift der Gesellschaft ist: Abraham-Lincoln-Str. 46, 65189 Wiesbaden, Germany

Vorwort

Alle Automobilhersteller erweitern ihr Modellangebot um Elektroantriebe. Der Volkswagen-Konzern entwickelt sich mit hohen Investitionen zum Elektroauto-Giganten. Die Elektromobilität nimmt Fahrt auf. Für einen erfolgreichen Hochlauf muss auch die Energieversorgung dieser Fahrzeuge passend gestaltet sein. Bei der 3. Internationalen ATZ-Fachtagung „Netzintegration der Elektromobilität“ werden wir uns deshalb die Situation in den Märkten ansehen. Elektromobilität macht nur Sinn bei konsequentem Einsatz von regenerativem Strom. Wann können Stromnetze volatile Wind- und Solarenergie speichern? Wie sind die Stromübertragungsnetze ausgelegt? Können Spitzenlastsituationen abgedeckt werden? Ist eine ausreichende Stromversorgung flächendeckend in­­ stallierter Schnellladestationen möglich? Gibt es einen Gesamtplan, der alle Wirk­­­zusammenhänge von der Energieerzeugung bis hin zur Ladesäule berücksichtigt und aus dem die notwendigen Investitionen abgeleitet werden können? Ein Durchbruch der Elektromobilität ist erst zu erwarten, wenn Produkt und Infrastruktur perfekt zusammenspielen und die Finanzierungsfrage geklärt ist. Um das Zusammenspiel zwischen den Vertretern der Automobilindustrie, der Energieversorger, der Datendienste, der Politik und der Finanzbranche national wie auch international zu optimieren, bieten wir Ihnen am 5. und 6. Juni in Berlin im Steigenberger Hotel Am Kanzleramt ein disziplinenübergreifendes Gesprächsforum an. Sie können so mit allen Schnittstellenpartnern direkt in Kontakt treten und sich umfassend über die aktuellen Problemstellungen und neuesten Erkenntnisse austauschen. Wir laden Sie ein, dabei zu sein! Für den Wissenschaftlichen Beirat Dr. Johannes Liebl Herausgeber ATZ | MTZ | ATZelektronik

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future Dr. Michael Stephan und Corinna Schreiter The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization Dr. Sabrina Weithmann E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks Reinhard Nenning Load management of charging stations for EV fleets – proof of concept and development potentials Dr. Hans Henning Thies, Piet Gömpel, Dr. Fabian Sösemann, Michael Janssen und Kay Suttkus Electrification of urban bus fleets: challenges and solutions Martin Ufert und Alexander Bunzel Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition? Ursel Willrett Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions Ralf W. Barkey E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators? Dr. Jan C. Strobel Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law Dr. Katharina V. Boesche

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone Oliver Arnhold, Dr. Kathrin Goldammer, Norman Pieniak, Katrin Hübner und Jörn Hartmann Commercial buildings and the grid in the advent of electric vehicles: challenges and opportunities – exploring possibilities for commercial buildings and facilities to sustainably host public EV charging infrastructures Delphine Clement, Louis Shaffer und John Robb Batteries (also used ones from electric vehicles) as stationary energy storage in a smart environment Dr. Jürgen Kölch

Autorenverzeichnis

Oliver Arnhold  Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin, Deutschland Ralf W. Barkey  Genossenschaftsverband Verband der Regionen e.V., Düsseldorf, Deutschland Dr. Katharina V. Boesche  Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Boesche, Berlin, Deutschland Alexander Bunzel  TU Dresden, Dresden, Deutschland Delphine Clement  Eaton Manufacturing GmbH, Le Lieu, Schweiz Dr. Kathrin Goldammer  Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin, Deutschland Piet Gömpel  GP JOULE GmbH, Reußenköge, Deutschland Jörn Hartmann  Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin, Deutschland Dr. Hans Henning  GP JOULE GmbH, Reußenköge, Deutschland Katrin Hübner  Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin, Deutschland Michael Janssen  PHOENIX CONTACT Deutschland GmbH, Leipzig, Deutschland Dr. Jürgen Kölch  EVA Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH, München, Deutschland Reinhard Nenning  Vorarlberger Energienetze GmbH, Bregenz, Österreich Norman Pieniak  Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin, Deutschland John Robb  Eaton Manufacturing GmbH, Le Lieu, Schweiz Corinna Schreiber  DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin, Deutschland

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Autorenverzeichnis

Asmus Schütt  Genossenschaftsverband Verband der Regionen e.V., Düsseldorf, Deutschland Louis Shaffer  Eaton Manufacturing GmbH, Le Lieu, Schweiz Dr. Fabian Sösemann  GP JOULE GmbH, Reußenköge, Deutschland Dr. Michael Stephan  DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin, Deutschland Dr. Jan C. Strobel  BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin, Deutschland Kay Suttkus  PHOENIX CONTACT Deutschland GmbH, Leipzig, Deutschland Dr. Hans Henning  GP JOULE GmbH, Reußenköge, Deutschland Martin Ufert  TU Dresden, Dresden, Deutschland Dr. Sabrina Weithmann  Weithmann & Partner, München, Deutschland H.G. Wiech  BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin, Deutschland Ursel Willrett  IAV GmbH, Sindelfingen, Deutschland

Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future Dr. Michael Stephan, DIN Corinna Schreiter, DIN

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_1

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

Actively taking part in standardization brings many advantages for companies of all sizes. Standards help clarifying product characteristics and promote cooperation among market participants. Standards are the lingua franca of technology and innovation, providing solutions for free global trade in goods and services. European standards open up the EU Single Market, while international standards provide access to global markets. Standardization can serve as a catalyst for innovation, and helps bring solutions to the market. Standards define interfaces and compatibility requirements. Anyone who ignores standards runs the risk of falling behind the competition. Using standards brings clear advantages – the participation in developing these standards even more so. Standards and specifications are also essential for a successful market ramp-up of Electric Mobility. DIN already founded the DIN – Electric Mobility Office in 2009. In this abstract you will find a brief introduction to standards and our contribution to the future of Electric Mobility.

A brief introduction to standards Who is DIN? DIN, the German Institute for Standardization, is the independent platform for standardization in Germany and worldwide. As a partner for industry, research and society as a whole, DIN plays a major role in paving the way for innovations to reach the market and advancing progress in innovative areas such as Electric Mobility and Smart Cities. More than 33,500 experts from industry, research, consumer protection and the public sector bring their expertise to work on standardization projects managed by DIN. The results of these efforts are market-oriented standards and specifications that promote global trade, encouraging rationalization, quality assurance and environmental protection as well as improving security and communication. DIN was founded in 1917 and celebrated its 100 year anniversary in 2017.

What does DIN do? External specialists use their expertise to develop the content of standards, with DIN's project managers ensuring the entire process runs smoothly. DIN staff members coordinate national, European and international projects, making sure all internal rules of procedure are followed. This increases the global acceptance of DIN Standards.

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

What is a standard? A standard is a document that specifies requirements for products, services and/or processes, laying down their required characteristics. This helps ensure the free movement of goods and encourages exports. Standardization promotes efficiency and quality assurance in industry, technology, science and the public sector. It serves to safeguard people and goods and to improve quality in all areas of life. Standards are developed in a consensus-based process organized by a recognized standards body.

How is a standard developed? Standards are developed by those who have a need and an interest in using them. The broad participation of all stakeholders, a transparent development process and the consensus principle ensure the wide acceptance of DIN Standards. Anybody can submit a proposal for a new standard. All those interested in a specific standards topic can participate and contribute their expertise. Before a standard is officially adopted, a draft version is published so that the public can make comments. Experts working on a standard must come to agreement on its content. To ensure they reflect the state of the art, standards are regularly reviewed by experts at least every five years.

Source: DIN

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

What is a DIN SPEC? A DIN Specification, or DIN SPEC, is also a document that specifies requirements for products, services and/or processes. However, in contrast to standards, DIN SPECs do not require full consensus and the involvement of all stakeholders. They are drawn up in temporary bodies called workshops. DIN SPECs are a trusted strategic instrument for quickly and easily establishing and disseminating innovative solutions on the market.

How is a DIN SPEC drawn up? The economic success of a good idea depends on how long it takes to reach the market. A DIN SPEC is the fastest way for turning research into a marketable product. Drawn up in small working groups, or "workshops", DIN SPECs can be published within only a few months. These workshops are excellent for exchanging ideas with other market participants. DIN's job is to ensure that a DIN SPEC does not conflict with any existing standards or rules of procedure. With its international contacts, Beuth Verlag sees that DIN SPECs are published and sold to a wide circle of customers. Thanks to the worldwide respect for the DIN "brand", DIN SPECs are effective marketing instruments that are widely accepted by customer and potential partners alike. And any DIN SPEC can be used as a basis for developing a full standard.

Source: DIN

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

DIN’s Electric Mobility Office infrastructure  interoperability  communication  safety  interfaces  charging  ICT One look at these selected topics, anyone quickly recognizes that Electric Mobility needs standardization. The early integration of standardization and specification supports the mass market of Electric Mobility. The national and international standardization ensures safety and quality, establishes trust, creates security for investments and fosters economic viability. Already in 2009, DIN set up its own Electric Mobility Office. The main tasks are coordination, networking and consulting within the Electric Mobility standardization area. The Electric Mobility Office is responsible for coordinating national and international standards work dealing with all aspects of Electric Mobility. The office serves as a central contact for all partners in all sectors. It coordinates work on standards and specifications – throughout the world – always taking the latest research findings into account.

Collaboration Electric Mobility is a common theme, which is why cooperation with all relevant actors is essential. On a national level we have three relevant organizations within the Electric Mobility standardization area: ● DIN as a central contact point for all requests regarding Electric Mobility ● NAAutomobil (VDA) – Automotive Standards Committee responsible for technical standardization with regard to the automotive sector ● DKE – German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE responsible for technical standardization with regard to electrotechnical issues

Since June 2016 DIN, DKE and VDA supervise the new project EmoStar²K – Promoting Electric Mobility through standardization, coordination and enhancement of its public perception. EmoStar²K’s approach is to enhance Germany’s leading role in setting standards for Electric Mobility by carrying out suitable coordinated measures, intensifying its public relations work and giving targeted support to German industry and research organizations. The measures relate to activities at the internationally recognized standards organizations ISO and IEC, at the European level at CEN and CENELEC, and at the national level at DIN, NAAutomobil and DKE.

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

What are the objectives? ● Strengthening public perception in order to increase acceptance; ● Rapid and continual identification of both the need for and implementation of standards and specifications based on the Electric Mobility Standardization Roadmap; ● Development of strategic alliances (national and international); ● Increasing awareness among stakeholders in order to eliminate duplicate efforts, take advantage of synergy effects and minimize investment risk as well as supporting small businesses and encouraging their involvement.

How will they be implemented? 1. Implementing the German Electric Mobility standardization strategy and the specific measures deriving from it (project cooperation, international cooperation, ...) 2. Initiating and implementing standards projects, e.g. for charging infrastructure 3. Carrying out standardization related activities, e.g. developing test methods in automotive technology 4. Putting communications measures into effect, e.g. participation, organization and implementation of workshops / conferences for networking and identification of specific areas where there is a need for standardization and specifications Find out more about the project and the current sub-projects: www.emostar2k.com/en

The German National Platform for Electric Mobility – activities of DIN The NPE was founded on the initiative of the German Federal Government and coordinates the process of making Germany the lead market in the areas of infrastructure, products, standardization and training in the field of electric mobility. The six working groups summarize their recommendations in reports and continuous monitoring. The NPE defines the necessary steps in roadmaps on topics such as standardization. The scientific basis for this is provided by studies in areas such as the market ramp-up for electric vehicles. Within working group 4 – Regulation, Standardization, and Certification, DIN is a permanent guest of the WG 4 meetings and organizes the steering committee of this group.

The German Standardization Roadmap Electric Mobility 2020 In April 2017 the NPE published The German Standardization Roadmap Electric Mobility 2020.

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

The Roadmap provides a comprehensive overview of completed, ongoing and future standardization activities in the field of Electric Mobility and examines both national and international activities. The time frame is set by the three stages: Market preparation (until 2014), Market ramp-up (until 2017) and Mass market (until 2020). With the German Standardization Roadmap Electric Mobility 2020, the NPE outlines visions, presents specific standardization results and gives recommendations. Depending on the target group, the roadmap can be used in many ways: as operational planning basis, as strategic reference, as basis for action planning or as a general information document.

International Activities Uniform standards and specifications are essential for the global automobile industry, which is heavily networked. The primary goal of our cooperation with international partner organizations is: Creating a body of standards for Electric Mobility that applies worldwide.

China The German-Chinese sub-working group on Electric Mobility, formed in September 2011 within the German-Chinese Standardization Cooperation Commission, provides a structure for experts from both countries to work closely together. Its aim: Finding common solutions within the framework of international standardization and strengthening cooperation among experts and organizations. Other tasks of the working group are: ● ● ● ●

Coordinating standards work in China and Germany Maintaining a dialogue Holding workshops for experts Focusing on areas such as batteries, vehicle safety, charging systems and interoperability

In Mai 2018 the 6th plenary meeting of the German-Chinese sub-working group on Electric Mobility was held in Germany. The Chinese and German experts from the fields of economy and politics took part at the joint workshop. Key issues were the respective standardization roadmaps on Electric Mobility as well as the topics: wireless power transfer, high power charging, traction battery, interoperability and data transfer.

In the USA The global automotive industry is currently turning to international ISO Standards and specifications, as well as standards published by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), a US Standards Developing Organization for automotive technology. However,

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Standardization in the field of electric mobility – our contribution to the future

industry is calling for more universal solutions. The goal is to avoid duplication of work in automobile standardization and to avoid different standards on the same subject. Lately an agreement between ISO and SAE has been signed to work on further and new standards concerning Electric Mobility. This ensures a more efficient and resource-saving use, for example in the area of data security. The development of ISO/SAE 21434 “Road Vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering“ is the first collaboration to take place.

DIN's Electric Mobility Office deals with all key aspects of Electric Mobility – across sectors and across borders. Contact us, we are pleased to help: [email protected]

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization Dr. Sabrina Weithmann

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_2

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

1. Introduction China is taking on a new role in international trade. One of the most prominent events highlighting this new role has been the speech of Xi Jinping, the president of the Peoples Republic in China (PRC), at the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2017. His speech has become famous as pro-globalization speech. It contrasted with the anti-globalization tendency proclaimed throughout the US president’s election campaign, who had assumed office shortly after the speech at the 2017 WEF. Xi Jinping made clear that in his view “the global economy is the big ocean you cannot escape from”, but China had by now “learned how to swim” (WEF, 2017). Since then at the latest, the western world is paying closer attention to China’s economic initiatives such as the ‘One Belt - One Road initiative’ or the ‘Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries’ (CEEC), which is also called the ‘16+1 debates’ 1 between 16 eastern EU and non-EU members and China (CEEC, 2018). For those engaged in business and international trade with China, standardization could have been applied as an earlier indicator for China’s changing role in the world economy: China had become increasingly active in international standardization debates over the years. In addition, Chinese national standards, those that are different from their international equivalents, had appeared with greater frequency. However, the international standardization setting has also experienced a prominent event that highlighted China’s changing role. In 2015, Zhang Xiaogang was elected the first Chinese to assume office as president of the International Standardization Organization (ISO). 2 Beside these events, that received media coverage (the first more than the second), China has continuously worked on its standardization framework and engagement on both, national and international level. And various business sectors have already experienced China’s new role. However, the Chinese standardization system is still in transition and sectors develop inconsistently in pace and outreach, which at this stage in the development, makes it difficult to draw coherent conclusions across sectors.

2. Standardization Systems in Transition There has been only little research on standardization systems in transition, which provides difficulties to find comparative cases that would help to explain China’s progressing transition. Here, the term transition mainly applies to countries that previously Apart from China, the 16 countries from central and eastern Europe are Hungary, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. 2 After his three-year term as president of ISO, he was followed by John Walter (Canada) in 2018. 1

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

institutionalized a system in accordance with the necessities of developing countries, but as their economy advances, they must adapt their standardization system. Weithmann (2018) further defines this transition phase as “[…] the transition of a country from a mainly manufacturing economy that relies on the adoption of international standards to a country, which develops competitive technology that can be converted into standards.” Or more specific in context of China: ”[…] ‘transition’ refers to the process of detaching from rigid standardization mechanisms and adapting a system that is aligned to the changing needs of China” (Weithmann, 2018). Such detachment is then kicked-off by initial standardization reforms that affect the institutional set-up and eventually the entire system. Once the role in international trade of a country in transition becomes more important, the effect on trade relations requires more attention. However, the imbalance related to the pace of technological catch-up of diverse industry sectors within the same country complicates research and demands a differentiated analysis to conclude with the possible impact on distinct industry sectors.

2.1. Standardization in Developing Countries Before detachment and economic rise, standardization systems of developing countries usually follow a centrally-governed approach. 3 As such, the number of mandatory standards with the character of statutory regulations are comparably high as standards are also applied to fill gaps where protective laws are missing (Hesser, W.; Inklaar, A., 1998). Overall, international standardization is considered a game mostly reigned by multinational companies (MNC) and developed, industrialized countries. Hence, the international system is made for the needs of economically superior countries and companies. This set-up and related preconditions required for efficient participation, such as financial requirements, trained professionals, etc. leads to international standardization practices that follow the preferences for negotiation and cooperation of these MNCs and developed, technologically advanced players (Li, X.; An, B., 2009). 4 To participate in the game, China had to leave behind its old system to match the changing need of its economy and to meet the requirements of globalization. A successful

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China follows a centrally-governed approach as typical for developing and planned economies. For China, the central governance in terms of policies and steering can be considered certain to remain in place over the long-term. Yet, the share of participation and decisions made in standardization discussions will shift to a more bottom-up approach with more interference from companies. 4 Also see Weithmann, S. (2018): 77.

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

transition is important for China to attain its goal of playing a more significant role in standardization within China, and beyond its borders. The Chinese standardization system and practices therefore required a holistic revision.

2.2. Standardization in China China’s standardization system was once designed to meet the demand of a planned economy. For this purpose, China adopted its standardization law in 1988, which remained the bedrock of standardization work for almost 30 years without adaptations. In 2015, a detailed plan for reforming the Chinese standardization system and law was published to initiate profound changes. Moreover, the new standardization law of the People's Republic of China came into effect on January 1st, 2018. The new law sets not only the new legal framework for standardization, but also officially seeks to lay out the foundation for China to become an international standardization power. 5 6 In practice, China’s changing standardization behavior has been an obvious process. For example, the standardization capabilities and competencies of Chinese experts have been increasing. This concerns technical skills as well as the linguistic prerequisites to participate in international committees. These 'new' capabilities are applied to examine and tailor international standards to suit the domestic market. In addition, there is growing self-confidence regarding own technologies and the interest in standardizing these technologies. Among other things, this creates standards that no longer match those standards elsewhere in the world.

3. Three-Phase Standardization Development Concept Why and how Chinese technology standards deviate from international standards has been context of a broader analysis that resulted in the author’s book publication ‘The evolvement of standards in China – Insights from the Electric Vehicle Industry’ (Weithmann, 2018). The research done for this publication covers four periods of field research in Beijing that involved 70 expert interviews. It shows that the evolvement of deviating standards is a substantial component in the development of the Chinese standardisation system – a standardization system in transition. As a research outcome, the

5 Although this remake of the standardization law and system had been long overdue, adjustments cannot occur overnight. The reform affects multiple institutional bodies on national and regional level. Furthermore, it demands for development of standardization skills and increased awareness of the important role of standardization for economic development. 6 Please note that this paper does not provide a holistic overview on the various development plans related to China’s standardization system. For more detailed information see Weithmann, S. (2018) and Weithmann & Partner (2018).

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

‘Three-Phase Standardization Development Concept’ (SDC) has been developed to explain the development of transitioning standardization systems. This concept shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: SDC (Weithmann, S. (2018)). As the concept was developed to explain why deviating standards evolve throughout the transition of a standardization system, the focus of the SDC is on phase II ‘set deviating standards’. However, it can also be applied to define the original stage, from there the transition evolves, and where it might eventually end up. In the first phase of development, international standards are adopted, not least to attract foreign direct investment. However, the transition of a system starts with the intent to leave phase 1 and move to the next phase: Phase II. Here, the technological capabilities increase, and technologies require the adaptation of existing standards or the creation of new standards to meet feasibility at national level. This can cause national standards that deviate from international standards. Throughout phase II, the large size of the Chinese market provides the advantage that products may diffuse substantially based national sales only. However, as soon as the interest of Chinese companies in product exports increases, the conformity to international standards regains importance. As consequence, phase III ‘set international standards’ is reached. At phase III, Chinese companies have the technological capabilities to contribute or even determine international standards. The analysis done by Weithmann shows that whether firms or countries move on to the next phase depends on various factors and different business sectors tend to react differently. Therefore, specific turning points can evolve, but it is hardly possible to determine or plan when and how a sector reaches this point, neither is it possible to make sure that there is national consensus on joint standards that can be convened

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

internationally in the first place. Moreover, some industry sectors don’t even intend to reach the level of setting international standards. This is the case for sectors claimed relevant for e.g. national security. Nevertheless, the general condition of moving between different phases can be encouraged through external measures such as favorable industry policies and regulatory tools. Although the Chinese government considers phase I and III as the overall goal for those industries subject to market mechanisms, in the meantime, deviating standards are likewise accepted as plausible outcome. For instance, the Chinese standardization law encourages the adoption of international standards within China, always provided that these standards are in line with national requirements. If they are not, standards are adapted to the Chinese market. In some Chinese industry sectors, this leads to applied international standards but with Chinese characteristics. This can cause additional expenses for foreign companies intending to place their products and services in the Chinese market. For now, it remains unclear whether aspects like the large market size of China will potentially have the effect of encouraging/forcing companies to focus more on standardization in the Chinese market in order seek international consensus from there on. By now, there are also sectors in which China starts right away with phase III and China appears as initiator or key participant on the international level: In nascent industry sectors such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) or drones where standards from other players have not yet spread widely, China does not have to catch up on technological development before engaging in ‘phase III standardization activities’. In traditional sectors, as it is the case for automotive production. Here, technological catch-up has been a significant requirement to participate in international standardization. China is therefore investing heavily in the development of technologies such as AI as such sectors provide the opportunity to establish as a global leader (Knight, 2018).

4. The Impact on Power Distribution Every industry sector follows an individual development roadmap and is therefore differently characterized. Each sector also plays an individual role in context of international trade. Consequently, the respective phase – adopt, deviate or set – can only be determined by analyzing each industry individually. Aspects that come into consideration are e.g. the level of sector globalization, reliance on either technology or security standards, network or compatibility effects or the existence and power of consortiums and international fora. All of these and various other aspects have considerable impact

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

on the development of power distribution among affected companies (Weithmann, 2018). 7 The same applies as new technologies are introduced. For instance, in the traditional automotive market, automotive standard-setting is dominated by incumbents that set more than 90% of internationally applied automotive standards (Weithmann, 2016). The EV market, in contrast, provides at least partly room for newcomers to pursue own standards and participate in international standardization, because the electric vehicle (EV) industry requires a new set of technologies such as electric charging, vehicle-togrid communication, charging infrastructure and battery technology. Thus far, it remains difficult to foresee how standardization in certain sectors will develop, especially as there is a strong correlation between standards and technological innovativeness. Innovativeness will over the long-term furthermore determine whether China can transform technological achievements into national standards or whether a sector will remain or return to adopting international standards (Weithmann, 2016). For other exemplary sectors such as smart grid technology, arguments for deviating or China-specific standards are related to matters of national security concerns. However, reaching beyond the grid, the energy sector offers plenty of opportunities for new business models that are open for market competition. Yet, these opportunities need to be carefully analysed and identified. There has been research on e.g. smart grid roadmaps from multiple stakeholders such as the report of the European standardization institutions (CEN/CENELEC/ETSI JPG, 2011) mentioning the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) roadmap (SGCC, 2010) or Chinese researchers mentioning the efforts done in the US and the EU (Miao, X. et al., 2012). Still, these studies only scratch the surface and each sector or even each company would be well-advised to make own efforts to follow the technological developments of evolving standards to keep track on whether their own technologies and products remain up-to-date and compatible with standards, and regulation. 8 The willingness and interest in international standardization can vary widely, even within one sector. The example of EVs shows that, for instance, the Chinese battery sector has companies with international reputation, companies that reach for markets beyond Chinese boundaries – going global. BYD or CATL 9 can be mentioned. The

The importance of a sector for overall industry development further defines the guidance and support policies received by institutions and therefore affects how standardization in a certain sector is coordinated and managed 8 Like the CE-mark, China applies the CCC-Certificate for many products. This, requiring compliance to certain standards to acquire CCC-conformity and therefore be traded within the Chinese market. 9 CATL (2018). In 2017, CATL founded branches in France, USA, Japan and Canada. 7

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

interest of these companies engaging or even dominating international standardization efforts to find global consensus can therefore be considered high. However, other areas in context of the automotive industry such as the charging standard (Weithmann, 2018) or the smart grid, which is strongly driven by SGCC, participation as in phase III to seek international compatibility might remain of less interest for involved Chinese players. It will further be interesting to see how the interface between vehicles and the internet will turn out: On one hand, Chinese consumers already have much higher interest in connectivity services than their counterparts in the EU or US (McKinsey, 2014), on the other hand, e.g. Chinese social network providers are still very limited to the Chinese consumer and their services hardly reach the western world.

5. Summary China is repositioning itself within the standardization framework. This applies to the national as well as the international standardization framework. Despite reputable events like a Chinese representative becoming head of ISO, it remains tricky to learn about China’s own idea regarding its position within the international standardization system. It is therefore valuable to take a closer look at standards as standards, just like patents, can serve as indicator to determine the level of innovation (and in context of China maybe even as a better indicator). Standards are not just a technological aspect of a firm’s production, but rather a significant aspect for product and strategy development. China becoming more active and engaged in standardization is a definite sign of technological advancement and can be witnessed across multiple sectors. It is therefore time for companies to spend more effort on standardization affairs. When engaging in China or with China, companies might need to adjust their prior standardization engagement according to the changing set-up of standardization activities and needs. It is therefore important to analyze the respective industry-setting, find out which phase of the SDC is relevant for the industry and consult experts. 10 It is further necessary to make sure that the employees in China working on standardizations and those participating in international bodies are made aware of the top-priority of their work. If companies cannot handle standardization work themselves, they should ask for support through industry alliances, the Sino-German standardization cooperation, etc. To ensure, that China’s changing role in standardization has a positive impact on the development of incumbent players and their economic interests, standardization

10 For instance, with experts who also have a broad knowledge on China’s political and economic development (technical experts or engineers only are often not sufficient).

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The impact of China’s changing role in technology standardization

cooperation with China is key for future technology development. With China moving between the different SDC-phases of development, monitoring China’s actions and addressing cooperation with China at early stages of technology development is certainly worthwhile. This enables firms to find common positions and, above all, to cooperate beyond company and national borders. This study encourages the idea to investigate each sector individually to specify China’s role within standardization of the respective sector. This enables companies to improve or revise their own approach if necessary and therefore keep track with competition. The outcome of related investigations will further help, for instance, to find the right partners to team up with. However, the character of e.g. phase II of the SDC might demand an open-minded and flexible approach that also considers mutual recognition of standards as an outcome along the way (even though intense cooperation and careful analyses have taken place). But at least, analysis helps to “see things coming” and therefore provides time to adjust.

Reference CATL (2018): Official Website of CATL, accessed March 18th, 2018, http://www.catlbattery.com/en/web/index.php/about/information. CEEC (2018): Official website of the Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries, accessed March 17th, 2018, http://www.chinaceec.org/eng/yjjj_1/2018ndsqzn_1/t1529356.htm. CEN/CENELEC/ETSI JPG (2011): Final report of the CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Standards for Smart Grids, accessed March 11th, 2018, online, http://www.etsi.org/images/files/Report_CENCLCETSI_Standards_Smart_Grids.pdf Hesser, W.; Inklaar, A. (1998): An Introduction to Standards and Standardization, DIN, DIN Normungskunde Vol. 36, Beuth Verlag. Knight, W. (2018): China wants to shape the global future of artificial intelligence, March 16th, 2018, MIT Technology Review, accessed, March 19th, 2018, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/610546/china-wants-to-shape-the-global-future-of-artificial-intelligence/. Li, X.; An, B. (2009): IPR Misuse: The core issues in standards and patents, SouthCenter, Geneva.

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Miao, X. et al (2012): Comparing Smart Grid Technology Standards Roadmap of The IEC, NIST and SGCC, China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012. SESEC (2017): English translation of the Standardisation Law of The People’s Republic of China, November 30th, 2017, available online http://www.sesec.eu/30112017standardisation-law-of-the-peoples-republic-of-china-is-available/. SGCC (2010): SGCC Framework and Roadmap for Strong and Smart Grid Standards, accessed March 12th, 2018, available online, http://esci-ksp.org/publication/sgccframework-and-roadmap-for-strong-smart-grid-standards/. WEF (2017): China's Xi Jinping defends globalization from the Davos stage, January 17th, 2017, accessed March 17th, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/chinas-xi-jinping-defends-globalization-from-the-davos-stage/. Weithmann, S. (2018): The Evolvement of Standardization in China – Insights from the Electric Vehicle Sector, Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden. Weithmann, S. (2016): Electric Vehicle Technology as Driver for Change in China’s Automotive Standardization, International Journal of Standardization Research, Vol. 14 (2). Weithmann, S. (2018b): Normung in China erhält einen neuen Rechtsrahmen, Weithmann & Partner, January 7th, 2018, http://weithmann.com/blog/2018/01/07/normung-in-china-erhaelt-einen-neuen-rechtsrahmen/.

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks Reinhard Nenning, Vorarlberger Energienetze GmbH, Bregenz, Österreich

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_3

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – Results1 Bregenz, 24.-25. October 2017 D-A-CH Workshop „E-mobility – carmakers and grid operators standing shoulder to shoulder“ Carmakers and grid operators are facing multiple uncertainties in the field of future charging solutions for e-Mobility. Direct and concentrated knowledge exchange between the partners is crucial to bring orientation and certainties for the future. Experts from Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D-A-CH) are meeting in Bregenz at a technical workshop to discuss the questions and approaches – existing or new – for charging infrastructure. Experts from both technical worlds want to understand the mutual challenges. A joint summary of the workshop will offer a better guidance for upcoming investments. Only together successful e-Mobility can be reached. Invitation (topics, registration, accomodation) Program (agenda with details and background) Results (pdf without attachments) Results (zip-file including all attachments download with "save as" and extract this zip-file with "extract all") Pictures Pictures in full resolution (230MB) TV-Video (German)

Minutes of the Workshop „E-Mobility-Carmakers and Grid Operators Standing Shoulder to Shoulder” Location: Mobility Centre, VKW Bregenz Time: 24.10.2017/13:30h-25.10.2017/13:00h Participants (for further details please refer to Participants): Lukas Böhler, Christian Bott, Ernst Brandstätter, Daniel Cajoos, Dr. Ingo Diefenbach, Andreas Dür, Christian Elbs, Christian Eugster, Raffael La Fauci, Dr. Hannes Haupt, Frank Herb, Dr. Michael Hirschbichler, Matthias Kaufmann, Felix Lehfuss; Peter Meschede, Markus Möhrle, Thomas Mühlberger, Reinhard Nenning, Roi Orlansky, Xaver Pfab, Guy-William Pivot, Felix Rug, Karl Scheida, Lukas Schober, Barry Sole, Josef Stadler, Johannes Türtscher, Axel Vogel, Hannes Georg Wiech, Georg Wurzer, Dr. Thomas Wieland.

1 https://www.vorarlbergnetz.at/inhalt/at/1479.htm

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Facilitation: Dr. Bertram Schedler Topic: What are the elements of a sustainable, cost efficient and generally accepted charging solution that is appropriate for end-users, automotive industry and grid operators?

Objectives of the workshop ● Grid operators and carmakers get in touch with the mutual requirements and limitations ● Carmakers and grid operators get better orientation for future charging solutions (510 years) ● Joint memorandum as a summary Course of the workshop: Afternoon

Morning

24.10.2017 (13:30-19:00) Welcome Speeches (J. Türtscher + Representatives of Grid Operators) Presentation of VKW Mobility Centre (C.Eugster) Evaluation of Wallbox-Charging and power grid-friendly elements (R.Nenning) Charging strategies in the Automotive Industries and other interesting approaches (Poster Session) Workshop: Requirements and Elements of a common solution Visit of new main control of Vorarlberg Netz (Vorarlberg Netz) 25.10.2017 (09:00-13:00) Collection of open questions for Workshops 2 workshop sessions with solution oriented exchange of ideas Short summaries of workshop results Assessment of statements for the joint memorandum Summary and Farewell (R.Nenning)

Attachments: Structured collection of results (presentations, posters, records, mindmap,…)

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Course of the Workshop und Summary of Results The presented documents und records that have been generated during the workshop are collected in following folder, whose documents are linked with these minutes.

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Day 1 - 24.10.2017 13:30-19:00 Welcome, Presentations and Poster Session Johannes Türtscher the CEO of Vorarlberg Netz opened the workshop and welcomed the participants. After his welcome speech Karl Scheida (Oesterreichs Energie), Hans Georg Wiech (bdew) und Raffael La Fauci (ewz für VSE) gave their welcome addresses to the participants. The folder „Welcome“ contains the presented documents. Just after the facilitator presented the agenda, Christian Eugster (VLOTTE) gave a view on the developments of electromobility in Vorarlberg in the past year. He closed his contribution with an outlook. Following this, Reinhard Nenning presented measurement results of charging processes at wallboxes. In addition, he summarized statements that have been extracted from position papers of the grid operator associations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The presentations of both contributions can be found in the folders „Input Christian Eugster and „Input Reinhard Nenning“) The charging strategies of the participating carmaker Audi, BMW, Porsche, Renault) have been introduced in the frame of a poster session. The folder „Poster“ contains the different contributions.

Workshop Requirements & Elements of a Common Solution Following these inputs, the participants have met in 6 small groups with changing participants to collect requirements on a charging solution from the perspective of carmakers, grid operators and end-users. The main results of the discussions can be taken from the folder “Requirements” that contains a photo documentation and a transcript of the 6 parallel working tables. Based on this exploration of requirements, the participants worked out essential elements of a common charging solution. Each of the 6 working groups presented their part of the solution to the other participants who amended where necessary. The photo documentation and the transcripts are gathered in the folder “Solution approaches”. After this working phase the 1st day has been concluded with a visit of the main control of Vorarlberg Netz. The participants got an impression of typical grid operations and the necessity of grid friendly functions.

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

By means of a mind map the facilitator structured ● the different requirements from the stakeholder perspectives of carmakers, end-users and grid operators ● as well as the essential elements of a common solution. An overview of the mind map is given below. Following the link the further branches can be activated in the HTML-file.

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Day 2 – 25.10.2017 9:00-13:00 After a short review on day 1 the facilitator introduced an Open Space and invited the participants to collect their open issues. Several participants described their topic and together with the facilitator a central question has been derived. The collected questions have been clustered and the participants defined 2 sessions with 9 parallel workshops, in which a solution to the question has been approached. At the end of both sessions the results have been presented. The transcripts and photo documentation can be found in the following linked folders:

Session 1 Workshop 1: ● How do we design the information and release/approval processes for charging infrastructure > 4,6 kW or 12 kW? Is charging with 22kW at home viable? How can we build a platform on which the charging parts can be registered at the grid operator?

Workshop 2: ● What are the grid requirements for enabling V2G services? How can we prevent a destabilization of the grid be energy traders?

Workshop 3: ● How can grid friendly charging at high efficiency ( active power reduction and “slice-charging”)

~1) be realized, comparing

Workshop 4: ● How can we agree on a simultaneity factor?

Workshop 5: ● Where shall the intelligence of charging be located?

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Session 2 Workshop 1: ● How is the understanding of “smart grid” for DSO? ● How does the roadmap look like for implementing the smart grid (DSO) from today to full operation? ● How can we manage the transition?

Workshop 2: ● Why should DC-charging be implemented in households? What would be the benefits? ● How could DC charging even in household garages < 20kW be implemented broadly?

Workshop 3: ● What are potential statements? (Meant Here: Is there something to add or change in the 30-point-thesis-collection presented by Reinhard Nenning the evening before?)

Workshop 4: ● For which demand the Grid has to be extended?

Workshop 5: ● How can we manage public charging in future for a huge number of cars?

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

Assessment of Statements Reinhard Nenning prepared a collection of 32 statements regarding the charging infrastructure. Mostly, those statements have been extracted from position papers of grid operator associations from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Participants have been invited to assess these statements according to following categories: ● I fully agree ● I agree after some modifications ● I disagree The assessment distinguished between following stakeholders: ● ● ● ●

grid operators car makers inverter industry further participants (sales, standardisation bodies etc)

The folder Evaluation of 30 Bregenz Theses contains the photo documentation and a transcript of the results to an Excel sheet. The Excel sheet contains the data and 2 graphical evaluations. The excel sheet can be used to extract for example the quality of stakeholder statements: Full agreement of grid operators and carmakers to following statements: ● We (all participants of the workshop) want to enable e-mobility for the society satisfactorily. ● A target-oriented and efficient upgrading and operation of the grids with a serious planning horizon is necessary. ● Such D-A-CH workshops like this can accelerate good solutions for the future. Regarding only the carmakers, following statements with 100% agreement can be added to the above list: ● The additional load for the electric grids by e-mobility is big. The simultaneity of electric demand and the necessity of more grid capacity will increase. ● Reinforcements in electric grids are expensive. ● E-mobility could come faster, then assumed at the moment. ● Locally operating grid-friendly features at charging are necessary (like PV, there implemented in 15 years’ time). ● Already today 3-phase-charging in the garages is possible – with an existing electrical installation state of the art. ● A locally operating management of active Power P (kW) makes sense for the local distribution grids, like e.g. P(U) (like in PV)

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E-Mobility Workshop Bregenz 2017 – results and follow up tasks

● A locally operating management of reactive Power Q (kvar) makes sense for the local distribution grids, like e.g. Q(U) (like in PV) ● A locally operating charging depending on frequency p=p(f) makes sense for the transmission grids, (like in PV). ● A function LVRT (Low voltage ride through) is useful for the stability of transmission grids (like in PV). ● Control- and communication-functions should be implemented in charging infrastructure to become an intelligent infrastructure too. ● A centralized DSO-management on active power P (kW) will support the own grid integration and the better use of existing grid capacities. ● A centralized DSO-management on reactive power Q (kvar) will support the own grid integration and the better use of existing grid capacities. ● Standards and norms are necessary for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Following statements require a modification and thus discussion with the grid operators to gain the agreement of the carmakers: ● The electric grid as a reliable backbone is available everywhere and now existing. ● Successful e-mobility needs consideration of the physics and costs of the grids. ● The announcement of charging infrastructure is very important for the grid operator; the bigger the more (information for grid upgrade and operation) ● Grid connection of charging infrastructure >4,6kVA (20A) shall be 3-phase. ● Single phase charging is mostly everywhere possible, but it should be limited on singular situations or emergencies. ● On the other hand, 1-phase-charging 3,7kVA (16A) should be 3-phase (advantage for the customer because of better function of another device > less unbalance). ● Numerous and same load actions at same time – caused by energy vendors-is able to destabilize the grid (also interruption or cutting off the charging of numerous EVs) Some carmakers disagreed on following statements: ● Grid connection of charging infrastructure >4,6kVA (20A) shall be 3-phase. ● DC charging even for smaller loads 25kWh). Using the traction battery of an electric vehicle for bi-directional charging is an attractive option during longer parking phases either at home or at work place (s. figure 1).

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

2 Smart Home System Concept Requirements for a Home Energy Management System ([6]) are: Interoperability: In a building several different devices are part of a HEMS (thermostats, electrical consumers, PV system, electric vehicles) which have to be combined in a system. At any time either a new device may be added or another device removed (Plug&Play). This is only feasible if the communication interface is interoperable and upward compatible to earlier implementation of the standards. Communication with the grid: This interface is required to optimize the energy flow between households and the grid, performed using a smart meter. Data security: Data security is essential within the todays interconnected world. One unsecure device may open the smart home network and via the smart meter interface also the grid for a cyber attack.

2.1 Smart Home System Architecture A smart home system consists of several consumers, PV system and electric vehicle (s. figure 2).

Figure 2: Smart Home System

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

The system is controlled by the home energy management system (HEMS). The HEMS also considers the input of the home owner for optimization.

2.2 Requirements for smart charging Electric vehicles are capable to be used for bi-directional charging. Not immediately used energy generated in the PV system may be used to charge the traction battery in the vehicle. During peak load phase the traction battery can be used to stabilize the smart home system internally without the need to access the grid via smart meter. Important requirements for smart charging are: ● Transfer of tariff tables ● Scheduling of charging times cooperatively between energy provider and electric vehicles ● Modification of scheduling ● Control of energy feedback using respective tariff tables for feedback ● Control of changes during the charging process, i.e. reduction of charging power, stop of charging, resume of charging process.

2.3 Potential for electric vehicles in a smart home system With the introduction of e-mobility more and more households own an electric vehicle with a battery storage (capacity > 25kWh). Statistically an average consumption of a household is determined 3500 kWh per year, approximately 10 kWh per day are required. Also according to statistical data privately used passenger cars park 23 hours per day. In the busy hour (5-8 pm), when the price to get energy from the grid will be high, it is attractive to use the energy from the battery of the electric vehicles. Re-charging can be done either during night in times of cheaper energy price from the grid or during daytime using the own photovoltaic system. Of course the decision how the electric vehicle is used is controlled by the home owner. Calculation of costs for the home owner with different scenarios (electric vehicle versus combustion engine car, fixed battery storage for HEMS, cost to receive energy from the grid) it is already today remunerative to use electric vehicles for mobility and stabilization in the home energy system. An electric vehicle can be used for mobility and as a buffer for electrical energy. It is therefore a key component to stabilize the load management in the house locally. For a proper solution the respective communication standards are used: ISO 15118 and standardized HEMS protocols.

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

2.4 Integration of electric vehicles in a smart home system Integration of electric vehicles in smart home systems is performed via charging cable and charging station (s. figure 3).

Figure 3: Communication protocols for smart charging via HEMS

The communication protocol between charging station an electric vehicle is performed using the standard ISO 15118 [7]. The specification contains all smart charging functions as scheduling, transfer of tariff information, charging control including bi-directional charging. In the wall box a gateway is integrated which converts information sent between electric vehicle and HEMS from ISO 15118 message format into HEMS protocol format and vice versa.

3 Communication Concept of HEMS 3.1 HEMS Communication – Protocol stack The communication concept supports the integration of several different devices. The devices have different requirements regarding the transmission of data, i.e.: ● Devices which transmit large amount of data, they require high bandwidth in the transmission channel -> transmission via Ethernet, PLC, WLAN ● Devices which use batteries and contain low power transmitters -> transmission using Zigbee ● Devices which transmit via wired connection or wireless

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

To support these various requirements the transmission layers can be adapted flexibly to the protocol layers (s. figure 4).

Figure 4: Protocol stack HEMS

3.2 HEMS Protocol stacks – international standards There are three standards for protocols in HEMS available. All of them are “young” standards. They are already released and have a mature state ready for implementation of adequate applications. Further updates of the standards will be upward compatible. The electric vehicles with smart charging functions are included in all standards as a device with its smart charging functions and properties. SPINE, [1], [2], [3]: This protocol is standardized by EEBus Initiative e.V., driven by Europe. The format for the messages is XML. The standard specifies the protocol and the resources with the respective properties and functions. For data security the specification SHIP is recommended by EEBus.

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

SEP 2.0 [4]: This protocol is specified by ZigBee Alliance, but now passed to IEEE (IEEE 2030.5), driven by USA. Format for messages is either XML or binary (EXI). Data security is performed using TLS. Echonet Lite [5]: This protocol is specified by Echonet Consortium, Japan. Format for the messages is binary. For data security there is no recommendation in the standard. For the applications data security has to be added if necessary.

Figure 5: International communication standards (HEMS)

Figure 5 shows a comparison for the three international communication standards for HEMS.

3.3 Open standards characteristics Each component in the house (consumers, PV, storage) and the electric vehicle are classified in a HEMS called “device”. The device “electric vehicle” is already defined in all three communication standards for HEMS (SPINE, SEP 2.0, Echonet Lite). They all contain the smart charging functions (s. chapter 2.2). Each device is characterized with its properties and functions. New devices are integrated into a HEMS using Plug&Play. An unique identifier / address is assigned to the device automatically. Interoperability and compatibility of devices are proven using certified test cases which are specified as

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

part of the standards. Interoperability test are performed before release of a device. Continuous progress in standardization of HEMS standards is provided to include further functions. The new versions of the standards are upward compatible with older versions.

3.4 Example for parameter setting – power class The communication protocols allow many different settings and applications. Tariffs and scheduling can be set by time, by consumption of maximum power or any combination of the parameters (s. figure 6).

Figure 6: Example Setting: Power Profile (Source EEBus Spine, Ressource Specification [3])

4 Summary and conclusion Smart home concepts are an application of Internet of Things. A smart home system connects all devices (i.e. PV system, thermostats, light, heating) using an intelligent control to support local load management. For a smart home system an electric vehicle is also a device and can be integrated into the home energy management system (HEMS) for bi-directional charging applications (smart charging). Locally over-

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Electric vehicles – enablers for the energy transition?

produced energy may be stored in the traction battery of the vehicle. Demand for mobility and for feedback of energy into the house is applicable, adjusted and controlled by the user. A smart home system uses a communication system which is capable to integrate various and different devices. Most of the available smart home systems are based on proprietary communication protocols. Devices from other suppliers are not compatible and cannot be integrated into proprietary systems. Future proof smart home systems use communications protocols which are specified in international standards. Available HEMS standards for communication are SPINE, SEP 2.0 and Echonet Lite. They can be used in combination with the established communication standard ISO 15118 between electric vehicle and charging station. In the charging point of the home a gateway function is required to map information between HEMS and electric vehicle. All these standards contain already electric vehicles as a device and are mature enough that they can be used for implementation of smart home systems including smart charging functions. Electric vehicles have high potential to serve for mobility and for supporting local load management in homes.

Bibliographie 1.

EEBus SPINE Technical Report – Introduction, Version 1.0.0, 29.4.1016, http://www.eebus.org/download-standard/

2.

EEBus SPINE Technical Report – Protocol Specification, Version 1.0.0, 29.4.1016, http://www.eebus.org/download-standard/

3.

EEBus SPINE Technical Report – Resource Specification, Version 1.0.0, 29.4.1016, http://www.eebus.org/download-standard/

4.

Smart Energy Profile 2 – Application Protocol Standard, Zigbee Alliance

5.

ECHONET Lite SPECIFICATION – Version 1.12, 27.5.1016, https://echonet.jp/spec-en/#standard-01

6.

The Internet of Things: Key Applications and Protocols, Olivier Hersent, David Boswarthick, Omar Elloumi, Wiley Online Library, 2011

7.

ISO 15118-2 (CD, 2017), Edition 2: Road vehicles – Vehicle to grid communication interface – Part 2: Network and application protocol requirement

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions Ralf W. Barkey Chief Executive Officer, Genossenschaftsverband – Verband der Regionen Only the spoken word is authoritative.

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_7

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions

Ladies and Gentlemen, “What one person alone cannot bring about, that is done by many.” You may have heard or read this saying recently. It is the maxim of the cooperative pioneer Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen whose 200th birthday we are celebrating this year. The idea that cooperation enables more to be achieved than solo goes back a long way. Yet it is more relevant than ever in view of the increasing benefits of scale in the area of technology. This also applies to electric mobility. Recent progress has only been possible because many partners have pulled together. And the major challenges faced today in particular in the area of infrastructure for electric vehicles can only be met by intensifying collaboration. Partnerships are conceivable at many points, and to an extent they are already being implemented – for example, in the use of electric vehicles for commerce, the integration of electric mobility facilities in new building projects, or the development of new carsharing schemes. A further area where increased collaboration is needed is in the expansion of public charging facilities. At present the number of public charging stations is not keeping pace with the number of electric cars. And even with the present charging infrastructure there is room for improvement for users. For example, some charging stations cannot be used without prior registration. Besides which, there are variations in pricing structure, and there’s sometimes a lack of transparency. Many of those involved would benefit from an expanded, i.e. geographically comprehensive, charging infrastructure which could be used simply – not only car owners but also manufacturers, power providers and local authorities. The ideal thing then would be for all those involved to get together so as to advance the expansion of the charging infrastructure and to create common standards for technologies, access, pricing and payment. But how might such extensive forms of collaboration be made possible such that all partners obtain a noticeable benefit? I believe that the cooperative model can supply very good answers to this question. Which is why I am so pleased to be invited here today. What is so special about cooperatives compared with other corporate forms? One central element that has been at the core of the cooperative model since the beginning is the democratic principle. This is expressed in the maxim “One member, one vote”.

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions

This principle creates a fair balance of interests between cooperative members since it prevents domination by any one financially powerful co-owner. It also creates certainty for the future. Thanks to the democratic principle a hostile takeover of a cooperative is as good as excluded. At least as important is the special mandate given to cooperatives that is set out in the law on cooperatives. It says that cooperatives must maximise the benefits for their members and not the profit. Therefore, a cooperative will never enter new business fields for reasons of profitability. Nor will a cooperative, being oriented on the benefits of its members, cease to offer a service which is especially valuable for its members because it supposes it could make higher profits in the short term with another offer. This has, for instance, saved the cooperative banks from abandoning the mittelstand business for somewhat adventurous business models. It still goes without saying that cooperatives must work economically. Their members may expect that the capital they have provided to their cooperative will be used responsibly. How reliably the German cooperatives do justice to this demand is shown in their very low insolvency rate in comparison with other corporate forms. Generally, cooperatives combine the efficiency advantages of companies with the participation advantages of associations to create a very effective and crisis-resistant whole. The mandatory cooperative audit makes an important contribution to this stability. This audit is conducted at fixed intervals by auditing associations such as ourselves, the Genossenschaftsverband. As by far the largest cooperative auditing association in Germany, we employ more than 700 public, cooperative and specialist auditors. We provide for all our member cooperatives audit and consultancy services which are aligned to their size, sector and business model. Our association advises and supports its members right from the time a cooperative is established. For the establishment of a cooperative a number of steps are necessary which are laid down in law. After corporate statutes have been drawn up and an initial audit conducted, the cooperative can be filed at the registration court and officially begin its work. Once it has been established, a cooperative offers its members a high degree of flexibility. Because cooperatives, in contrast to other corporate forms, do not have a fixed capital, their members can enter or leave easily. Thus it is not only through their democratic basis, special membership benefits and stability that cooperatives distinguish themselves from other corporate forms – they also enjoy an uncomplicated option for

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions

extending the stakeholder basis. Since the adoption of new members is decided by the board of a cooperative, uncontrolled – rank – growth is prevented. Ladies and Gentlemen, so much on the legal and organisational framework. Much more interesting than the grey theory is of course the question of how the cooperative model is lived in practice. The regional cooperative banks – the Volksbanken and Raiffeisenbanken – enjoy a high profile in Germany. Household names among consumers include the retail cooperatives EDEKA and Rewe and the stationery supplier Soennecken. Many large cooperatives with sales in the billions can also be found in the agricultural sector. Two examples here are the agricultural centres RWZ and Westfleisch. Since the second half of the 20th century, the cooperative model has been used to enable and facilitate technological change. An early example is DATEV, which was established more than 50 years ago and provides software solutions and IT services for tax advisors, public auditors, lawyers and companies. Founded in 1966 with only 65 members, today DATEV counts more than 40,000 members, 7,000 employees and an annual turnover of almost 1 billion euro. The Frankfurt-based cooperative DENIC goes back more than 20 years. It operates the central register for more than 16 million internet addresses with the ending "de". Cooperatives have also been engaged in technological changes in medicine. The cooperative Duria has been supplying software for doctors’ surgeries since the 1990s. The cooperative Evocare Telemedizin ECT, which was founded in 2013, specialises in the use of new technology, equipping clinics with telemedical treatment procedures so that they can continue to care for patients after they have left rehab. Cooperatives have been meeting the recent demand for broadband provision. Since in many countryside regions there are too few private suppliers, often the only way local residents can obtain broadband is by taking the initiative themselves. This is also the case for small and medium-sized businesses that cannot make such investments on their own and are dependent on outside service providers or on cooperation with other enterprises. Cooperatives offer a superb framework with which those affected can master the urgently needed extension of broadband. They can advance the extension of the network to the final users, for example in industrial estates while also providing suitable solutions for neighbouring residential areas in the countryside. A number of such projects have already begun. These cooperatives were and are initiated and funded – in different combinations – by private individuals, enterprises and local government authorities. The cooperative model has been used for a number of years intensively in the area of renewable energy. At present the Genossenschaftsverband represents some 360 energy

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions

cooperatives with far more than 100,000 members. Our wind energy cooperatives range from small organisations with only one unit through to our largest energy cooperative, which operates 359 wind energy turbines in 62 wind farms. In addition to supplying energy derived from wind and sun, energy cooperatives operate district heating and power grids. Cooperative bio-energy villages focus on jointly organised sustainable energy supply on the basis of modern technologies. These villages cover a large part of their power and heating needs with biomass that comes largely from the local region. Cooperatives are also involved in infrastructure for electric vehicles. There are already several cooperative projects that operate regional or supra-regional networks of charging stations with the involvement of the regional cooperative banks. Increasingly, housing cooperatives plan for electric charging stations in their projects, integrating them into their designs for sustainable power supply. There are newly formed car-sharing cooperatives that are based entirely on electric mobility. One interesting example is EMO-FFM in Frankfurt, which is based on a combination of commercial use and private car sharing. For this, the cooperative offers modular mobility solutions to housing companies, builders and co-ownership associations as well as other enterprises. The network of public rental and charging stations is supplemented for rental cars directly at the user’s front door and in commercial contexts. Thus cooperatives are suitable for diverse business models catering for high-tech, energy and electric mobility. So very different as are the business models, so too are the membership structures. Not only private individuals, also businesses and other legal entities can become members of cooperatives. This also goes for local government authorities, for instance, in the case of the broadband cooperatives mentioned earlier. And, of course, a cooperative may simultaneously have members from all the groups mentioned. The geographic spread of the cooperative members is just as variable. In some cases all members of a cooperative come from a specific region, but sometimes they are distributed throughout Germany. And international memberships are no rarity among cooperatives. Ladies and Gentlemen, it is precisely their adaptability that enables cooperatives to play a decisive role as catalysts for technological change. Here is an interesting example to show that their scope need not be restricted regionally or nationally – one you are familiar with from international payments. Most of us have encountered the bank routing number – the sort code – BIC. The existence of BIC and the infrastructure behind it for international payments is the work of the worldwide cooperative SWIFT. In 1973, when SWIFT was established, there was no such uniform infrastructure. Banks had to follow very roundabout

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Rethinking infrastructure – a case for cooperative solutions

procedures when their clients wanted to remit money abroad. In most cases, they had to transmit the payment details by telex to the financial institution of the recipient. In some cases, isolated solutions with electronic communications were used, but they only worked between individual banks. As a cooperative, SWIFT succeeded in a relatively short time in creating a common electronic messaging platform and standards for communication. This success was possible because SWIFT was started as a joint project by many players that, otherwise, in their daily business, view each other as competitors. Today the cooperative, which is domiciled in Belgium, serves more than 11,000 financial service providers in more than 200 countries on all continents. Each day about 30 million SWIFT messages are transmitted and processed in order to enable cross-border payments. The enormous economic benefit of SWIFT is demonstrated by a study by the London School of Economics and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The academics concluded that institutions participating in SWIFT developed much more profitably than comparable banks that did not participate. The new technology enabled the participating banks not only to cut costs, but also to offer additional services connected with payments transactions and so increase their sales. SWIFT members of all magnitudes enjoyed these benefits – with the smaller member banks benefiting more than average. Hence a cooperative is superbly suited to counter fears that smaller partners might be disadvantaged in comparison with larger ones. Electric vehicle infrastructure is today in a similar situation to international payments 40 years ago. The technology has long been available. But using it still does not come naturally for most private individuals and enterprises. For electric mobility to become as commonplace as Edeka, REWE and the cooperative banks, internet addresses ending “de” or the international bank sorting code BIC, cooperatives can make a valuable contribution. Cooperative strengths such as democratic structures, focus on member benefits, stability and flexibility are important preconditions so that today’s important technological change processes can succeed. This applies too and especially to the subject of grid integration for electric mobility, where vehicle manufacturers, local authorities, grid operators, power generators and customers must collaborate closely and intensively on the basis of trust and common goals. Thank you for your attention!

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators? Jan Strobel

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_8

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

In the public debate, some studies spread ‘black-out’-fairy tales regarding the effect of e-mobility on the electricity grid in Germany. This paper takes a more pragmatic view on the current state of the debate from the perspective of a grid operator. From this perspective, the time for planning and the development of new measures is today. Primary additional measures for the grid integration of e-mobility should be transparency regarding private charging infrastructure and the participation of larger private charging infrastructure to participate in a load management schemes if necessary. In the public debate, the effect of e-mobility on the electricity grid is a controversial issue: While some studies spread ‘black-out’-fairy tales, others welcome e-mobility as the perfect flexibility-counterpart to the increasing renewable capacities [Wyman 2018, BMU 2017]. Contrary to these general approaches, this paper tries to take a more pragmatic view on the current state of the debate by taking the perspective of a grid operator. From this perspective, the following questions require an answer in order to manage the integration of e-mobility into the grid: ● ● ● ● ● ●

How relevant is the topic? Where does e-mobility affect the grid? How does e-mobility affect the grid? When does e-mobility affect the grid? What measures are at hand in order to integrate e-mobility into the grid? What measures are additionally desirable in order to integrate e-mobility into the grid?

1 How relevant is the topic? The relevance of the topic for the grid operators depends on the market development of electric vehicles (EV). The current figures for the German market can be summarized as follows: ● On January 1st 2018 there were 53,861 authorized battery electric vehicles (BEV) and 44,419 plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), which represents a market share of 0.21 per cent of all German passenger cars. Compared to 2016 the growth rates were 58.3 per cent for BEV and 111.8 per cent for PHEV [KBA 2018]. ● On December 31st 2017 the public charging infrastructure in Germany consisted of roughly 12,500 charging points, thereof 850 fast chargers. This represents an increase by 75 per cent from the 7,400 charging points in December 2016 [BNetzA 2018, BDEW 2017]. Due to the public funding scheme executed by the NOW more than a doubling of the public charging infrastructure until 2020 can be expected [BMVI 2018]. ● Finally, the agreement of the current German governing coalition aims at 100,000 additional charging points, thereof 33 per cent fast chargers in 2020 [Bundesregierung 2018]. This target is set in order to achieve the 2020 target of one million EVs in the

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

German market assuming a relation of 1:10 between charging points and EVs [COM 2014]. However, for fast charging points others calculate with a relation 1:100 [e.g electrive 2018]. ● Public infrastructure is expected to cover less than 20 per cent of all charging, the remaining more than 80 per cent are expected to take place at home, on parking sites or at the workplace [NPE 2017]. However, so far no resilient figures are available regarding this private charging infrastructure. ● Finally, for a million EVs the federal government estimates an additional electricity demand of 2.67 TWh p. a. and for 45 million EVs approximately 122 TWh p. a.. The 2.67 TWh would represent an increase of the German electricity consumption in 2017 by 0.4 respectively 1.2 per cent of the renewable electricity generation [Bundesregierung 2018, AG Energiebilanzen 2018]. All in all, the e-mobility market so far is comparatively small but gaining momentum. The regulatory outlook in the form of the European CO2-reduction targets and supportive measures for public charging infrastructure is positive for at least until 2025/ 2030 [European mobility package] and spillover effects from current e-mobility lead markets (esp. California, China) can be expected. This means for grid operators that they do not only gather first experiences with EVs in their grid but that they take e-mobility into account in their short and medium term grid planning. In other words: The time for planning and preparatory measures is today.

2 Where does e-mobility affect the grid? E-mobility may be a perfect counterpart for consuming the volatile generated renewable electricity. But it will hardly lead to a reduction in the need to extend the grids for the integration of renewable energy. The simple reasons are firstly the so far limited potential to consume renewable electricity today. But even more important is that most cars in Germany, and accordingly the market for EVs, are located in densely populated areas which are ‘electricity drains’ and not in those areas where the generation of renewable electricity is concentrated in. Thus, the need to extend the maximum and high voltage grids for the transport of renewable electricity to the centers of consumption will not be affected by emobility. In other words: E-mobility can be a part of the ‘Energiewende/ energy transition’ but it is first of all an approach to the ‘greening’ of the transport sector (‘Verkehrswende’). Considering the above mentioned uneven distribution of cars, e-mobility will mostly affect the grid especially in densely populated areas. In these areas, more than 80 per cent of all charging takes place at home, other private charging sites and load hubs. In addition, further charging opportunities are e.g. company parking sites or fast chargers located especially next to highways. Consequently, E-mobility will be a low voltage grid topic especially in densely populated areas.

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

3 How does e-mobility affect the grid? In general, the increase of the German electricity consumption by 0.4 induced by EVs does not significantly affect the grid on the higher voltage levels because these levels dispose the required additional capacity. Instead, the major issue is the effect on the medium and low voltage grid. For estimating the effect of EVs on these grid levels the current utilization of the grid, the number of EVs and finally their charging pattern, i.e. the timing of the charging and the load curve, primarily matter. However, taking a first glance at charging patterns, a quite diverse picture can be expected since the charging pattern of an EV depends on its type (BEV or PHEV), usage and finally on the charging infrastructure. Consider the following examples: ● A PHEV used as commuter car is charged primarily at home and during the week at work with a charging capacity of 3.7 kW. ● A BEV used as a part of a local service fleet is charged primarily during the week at public fast charging stations with a charging capacity of e.g. 50 kW and at private charging stations during the night and weekend with 3,7, 11 or 22 kW. ● A BEV used as a second ‘fun-car’ is charged at home with a larger demand at weekends with a charging capacity 3.7 to 22 kW and at public fast charging stations. Accordingly, the charging patterns of these EVs and their effect on the grid differ significantly [California Energy Commission 2018, Schulz 2016]. From the perspective of a grid operator, the charging taking place at public fast charging stations or at larger sites connected to the medium voltage grid is manageable. Reasons are that a) b) c) d)

e)

4

the charging at public fast charging stations is carried out sequentially leading to a ridge-shaped load profile; the process to connect charging infrastructure to the grid on this voltage level is highly transparent; the technical grid requirements are generally taken into consideration for connections on this grid level; the required contribution towards network costs facilitates the negotiation between the investor and the grid operator regarding the optimal fit between the installed charging infrastructure and the grid capacity and potential load management measures; for medium voltage grids grid protection techniques monitoring the amount, voltage and frequency as well as control functions are already at hand.

E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

Looking on low voltage distribution networks, the situation is somewhat different. The reasons are that a) b)

c)

d)

the charging at private charging stations can take place simultaneously leading to a sharp increase and a high peak in the load profile; the peak load capacity of the distribution network is generally calculated based on a relatively low coincidence factor between 0.2 and 0.4 so that a few EVs charging simultaneously with a high charging capacity easily can exceed the peak load; the local transformer stations today usually are equipped with overload protection but neither with monitoring techniques measuring the voltage and frequency nor with control functions; private housing has a guaranteed contribution-free grid connection capacity of 30 kW so that the installation of a private charging infrastructure with a charging capacity of 3.7 or 11 kW will be leading to a higher risk, that the charging station is neither known to the grid operator nor are the technical requirements safeguarded nor the potentially necessary load management measures implemented.

Considering that and following the above-mentioned estimation that 80 per cent of all charging takes place at private sites, the missing transparency and control functions in the low voltage grid represent a significant challenge for the grid operator.

4 When does e-mobility affect the grid? There are different projections at what point e-mobility will have an impact on the grid. The recent publication of Oliver Wyman and the TUM predict that at a market share of 30 percent EVs “black outs allover the country” are possible [Wyman/ TUM 2018:5]. However, simply indicating a market share and reasoning about area-wide black outs is not the right answer to the question. Instead it needs to be considered that 1. power outages in local distribution networks do not have an area-wide effect but are kept in their local grid due to the overload protection in the local transformer stations; 2. the current utilization of the local grid is a decisive variable that varies significantly between local grids, so that the risk for a power outage can only be considered caseby-case; 3. finally, the usage and respective charging pattern needs to be considered as well in order to predict the risk of a local power outage. Accordingly, a current BDEW and FNN metastudy on e-mobility and grid integration concludes that the available studies on the effect of EVs on local grids indicate that a 25 per cent share of EVs in a local grid tends to be a tipping point. Considering the

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

homogeneity and size of some local grid areas, this tipping point clearly is more probable and in reach than an overall market share of 25 per cent for EVs in Germany. It is obvious that this discussion, while attracting public attention, is somewhat theoretical from the perspective of a grid operator. Instead, the central question is how e-mobility can be integrated into the grid because the planning and the preparation of the local distribution grids of the coming years takes place today.

5 What measures are at hand in order to integrate emobility into the grid? Due to the so far low market share of EVs most current measures of grid operators are preparatory: ● The first step for grid operators in the integration of EVs into the grid is to obtain precise information regarding the additional capacity utilization by EVs. For that purpose, (the funding of) pilots and especially the information exchange and common understanding with the OEMs – e.g. in an organization such as the ‘Nationale Plattform Elektromobilität’ (NPE) – plays a vital role. ● The second step in order to focus and to plan the e-mobility-oriented measures is to identify potential e-mobility hot spots e.g. on the basis of settlement structures, socio-economic data, and installed charging infrastructure respectively EV licensing figures [Netze BW 2017]. ● As a third step, the information regarding potential e-mobility hot spots is combined with the current utilization of the local grids and their typology in order to identify where local grids require special attention. ● Fourthly, for e-mobility hot spots in the existing grid, grid operators can install monitoring and control units in the local transformer stations enabling them to identify EV-induced grid extension or grid management needs in a timely manner. Additionally, grid operators develop standardized approaches for the realization of grid connection requests for e.g. garages and building projects. ● Fifthly, for facilitating the grid integration of EVs grid operators explore the opportunity to stimulate the EV customers to adapt their demand to the current grid capacity by providing time-based network charges. Generally, grid operators are keen to explore the flexibility potentials provided by EVs [Stromnetz Berlin 2018, TenneT 2018]. In sum, grid operators are very eager to prepare the planning and development of their grids for e-mobility and to provide EV-customers the excellent grid service they are used to. The final question from their perspective is what could be additionally done, in order to facilitate the best possible grid integration of e-mobility?

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

6 What measures are additionally desirable in order to integrate e-mobility into the grid? The primary measure from the perspective of grid operators addresses the missing transparency regarding newly installed private charging infrastructure. As mentioned there is still the risk, that private charging infrastructure with a charging capacity of 3.7 or 11 kW is neither announced to the grid operator nor in compliance with the technical requirements. In contrast to this situation on the demand side, on the supply side even small sized power generation units such as PV installations with a capacity of larger than 7 kWp need to be announced to both the grid operator and the BNetzA. Accordingly, in order to fulfill their obligations, the regular announcement of newly installed private charging infrastructure would be extraordinarily helpful for grid operators – even more so if one bears in mind that EVs can be used for electricity storage and grid balancing as well. The second additional measure targets the question of flexibility: For the grid operator, the provision of the grid access is one of his primary targets. This holds true even in the case that an EV-customer requires a larger grid connection capacity while the local grid already is highly utilized and grid extension is no short-term option, e.g. in an urban area. Under such circumstances for the grid operator a very valuable measure is to be able to manage the additional EV-load until the required grid extension is completed. Today the often mentioned §14a EnWG provides the grid operator with a possible funding scheme for such a load management but the participation is voluntary. The current attempts of time-based network charges show that the financial incentive alone is not sufficient. Therefore, and in order to provide an immediate high quality grid access for the EV- and all other connected customers it would make sense from the grid operator perspective to accompany the §14a funding scheme with an obligation for larger private charging infrastructure to participate in a load management scheme if necessary. Here again, the regulation of power generation units of a similar size is more advanced. Especially the obligatory retrofit of PV systems demonstrates the necessity for early decisions on this topic avoiding expensive ex-post measures. Finally, the grid integration of e-mobility entails costs. For grid operators the handling of these costs is an unsettled question. Here, the primary issue is that the proceeds of grid operators are capped by the incentive regulation. In this setting ‘inefficiencies’, i.e. a comparatively low amount of transported kWh in relation to the invested capital, are penalized. Therefore, especially EVs demanding a (potentially) very high peak load can decrease the efficiency of a grid operator. This holds especially true for preventive grid connection requests for large building projects based solely on the assumption that private charging will be an important buying criteria for future customers. It could make sense to take this into account for the next regulation period.

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E-mobility – opportunity or threat for grid operators?

Conclusion So far, e-mobility seems to represent more a challenge than an opportunity to grid operators. Topics necessary to be addressed are the missing transparency regarding the installation of private charging infrastructure, the missing incentive for EV-customer to participate in load management measures and the uncertainty regarding the handling of e-mobility related costs in the incentive regulation. On the other hand, these topics are relatively easily to be solved. In this case e-mobility represents an excellent opportunity for grid operators to boost the intelligence in low voltage grids, to become visible as the enabler of the ‘greening’ of the traffic and the energy sector and to get in touch with the clients delivering a high-class service.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law Dr. Katharina V. Boesche, Lawyer and Leader of the legal framework group of the project of the Ministry of Economy and Energy “ICT for e-mobility”

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_9

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

The provision of § 14a of the German Energy Industry Law (“EnWG”) was incorporated into the law within the scope of the amendment of the EnWG of August 2011 and regulates the control of interruptible consumption devices in low-voltage networks in connection with a legal ordinance still to be issued by the Federal Government. With this regulation, the legislator passed a law for the first time that implements the concept of smart grids.1 In the course of the German Act on the Digitization of the Energy Turnaround of August 29th, 2016, which contains the German Metering Point Operation Act (“MsbG”), the regulation was amended.2 Decisive changes are the replacement of the condition "interruptible" with the word "controllable". The relevant plants no longer have to be absolutely interruptible (which is very welcome here); rather, according to the legislator, "consumption equipment that can be controlled in general (i.e. not only switched off)" is sufficient.3 The abandonment of a previously sufficient on/off switching ("interruptible") according to § 14a EnWG and replacement by a real control already suggests to the legislator in the wording that more complex control models are required. The amendment of 2016 also deleted the notion of "network relief", the purpose of which was concealed in § 14a sentence 1 EnWG. The purpose was replaced by the formulation of "network-related control". According to the explanatory statement of the law, the amendments allow an "even broader approach to flexibility by means of a legal ordinance".4 The legislator of the MsbG also waived the earlier requirement that the control system should be reasonable for the final consumer and supplier, which is welcomed here.5 The purpose of network usability is to ensure that certain network users or a group of network users behave in such a way that the demand they generate is "moderated". If this moderation takes place in a way that benefits the Network Statement, i.e. simplifies its task, it can be described as "useful for the network". This will be the case in particular when the network is relieved. From a technical point of view, this (grid-related) relief takes place regularly when the capacity-driving demand is shifted out of the point in time of the simultaneous peak load. Analogous to § 33 MsbG,

1 See EURELECTIC, Smart Grids and Networks of the Future, EURELECTRIC Views, 2009, p. 7; VDE/DKE, Die deutsche Standardisierungsroadmap E-Energy/Smart Grids, 2010, p. 13. 2 Entry into force: 2.9.2016, BGBl. I 2034. 3 BT-Drs.18/7555, p. 1111. 4 BT-Drs.18/7555, p. 1111. 5 So already Franz/Boesche, in: Säcker, Commentary on the EnWG, 3rd edition, § 14a marginal 21 f.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

it could be expected that the usefulness of the network would require control by a Smart Meter Gateway (SMGW).6 According to the sense and purpose of § 14a EnWG and the actual circumstances, the final consumer is the addressee of demand flexibility. The logical consequence is that its concerns in particular must be taken into account. In the case of electric mobility, it is therefore crucial which final consumer is addressed, the operator of the charging point or the user of the vehicle, which must also coincide at the private shop (e.g. at the employer). Ultimately, it will always be a customer or a plant under his control which is the source of the flexibility to be used within the scope of the application of § 14a EnWG. Without the involvement of the customer and his agreement with control measures, control of the consumption systems located in his "realm of power" cannot be made. According to the legislator, the basis for grid-related load management is always "agreements between network operators and the connection user".7 In addition, the legislator has cumulatively determined that the controllable consumption device must have a separate point of delivery.8 As a rule, the requirement for a separate counting point means that a separate metrological device (meter) and, if applicable, a corresponding communication unit is installed there. It is first of all understandable that a separate metering point must be kept available, because it means that the controllable consumption device in question is visible or can be measured from the point of view of the overall electrical system. It can be assumed that the legislator wanted to express at the same time with the formulation "separately" his idea that it had to be a physical point of delivery (possibly also a sub-counter). This interpretation is supported by the fact that if a physical point of delivery is present, it can be assumed that the amount of electricity consumed by the interruptible consumption device alone 6 The EnWG does not define the term "usefulness for the grid". Article 33 MsbG, on the other hand, contains requirements for "network-related and market-oriented use". Among other things, the measuring point will be equipped with an SMGW and controlled by an SMGW. So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Ber-liner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 13 (publication planned for 2018). 7 BT-Drs.18/7555, p. 1111. 8 In the energy industry, point of delivery is the term used to describe the point at which supply services are provided to consumers by energy suppliers. A unique point of delivery ID is assigned to the point of delivery. In Germany, the designation is assigned in the deregulated energy market according to the metering code. A point of delivery can represent exactly one meter, for example, the electricity meter of a house. However, several measuring points can also be combined to form a virtual counting point. This can be, for example, a company with several transfer points. The grid operators manage the supply relationships to the various metering points in their grid area, cf. among others MeteringCode 2006, May 2008 edition of the Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (BDEW) e. V. (Federal Association of Energy and Water Management).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

can be clearly determined. With the MsbG, the legislature has introduced a new term with the measuring point, which "comprises all measuring, control and communication devices (...) for the safe connection of (...) controllable loads to metering points of a connection user",9 which clarifies that the consumption system according to § 14a EnWG is usually only part of a larger and possibly also more complex electrical system, whereby its individual subsystems can be differentiated by metering points if necessary. This view is fundamentally understandable in the light of the development towards "intelligent measuring systems" laid down in the MsbG. However, it must be noted that today there are other, simpler technical solutions in the area of night storage heaters, like other switchable consumption devices. What all these solutions have in common is that they allow certain connected loads to be switched off/controlled, e.g. by means of ripple control.10 This means that in the status quo a control corresponding to the intended effect of § 14a EnWG is achieved, if necessary without a separate counter point being present. In a Target System 2030, it is conceivable that smarter instruments such as an energy management system (EMS) would take over the control function behind the grid connection point and control the consumption systems behind it, ideally alongside a charging point for electric vehicles, heat pumps, storage and PV systems. The fact that in this case each individual consumption system must have a separate meter in addition to the SMGW, which will probably have been installed by then, is not seen here. The MsbG orders in § 29 sentence 1 EnWG the use of intelligent measuring systems also for the § 14a EnWG cases. Since a corresponding ordinance is not yet available, the individual business conduct of the distribution network operator (DSO) is important. If the latter has concluded contracts with individual grid users in accordance with § 14a EnWG, the systems in question are mandatory installation cases in accordance with the MsbG. If such agreements do not exist, there is initially no roll-out obligation, although the systems may basically be suitable for network control. This means that intelligent measuring systems do not necessarily have to be used for control in systems that can be controlled with today's technology and in which, due to the high annual consumption quantities as defined in the MsbG, intelligent measuring systems have to be installed. The intelligent measurement systems must (cf. §§ 21, 31 and 35 MsbG) be fundamentally suitable for enabling control actions relevant to the grid or a "change of switching

9 See § 3 No. 10 MsbG. 10 The term "ripple control" precisely "audio frequency ripple control" refers to techniques that use the existing electricity network to "send" certain commands. For this purpose, pulse sequences of certain frequencies which trigger certain "reactions" in the ripple control receivers are used, cf. e.g. the regulations laid down by VDN in the Technical Connection Conditions for Connection to the Low Voltage Network (TAB 2007; 2011 edition) and VDEW, audio frequency ripple control, recommendations to avoid unacceptable repercussions (1997).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

profile"; however, the MsbG does not order (contrary to the expectations of numerous observers) that in future only intelligent measurement systems are to be used for control.11 The legislator was therefore fundamentally well aware of the problem that the technical change in metrology would take time and has created possibilities that initially do not allow the use of measuring systems in certain old cases. If the regulator intends to regulate all currently known or conceivable cases of switching operations that occur at the behest or initiative of the DSO in an ordinance to be issued under § 14a EnWG, the question of transitional regulations and possible exceptions for existing installations will arise again. Alternatively, the regulator could see the provision of § 14a EnWG as essentially a forward-looking provision and exempt existing investments from certain obligations without also limiting the legal consequences.12 In electrical networks, the simultaneous peak load, i.e. the electrical power "requested" at a certain point in time together with other network users connected to the same (sub) network, regularly drives up capacity and thus costs.13 The drawn electrical power is measured in watts (or in kW or MW for larger loads) and is to be distinguished from the electrical energy, which is measured in kWh, for example. It should be noted that the individual grid users and their capacity requirements "mix". This means that even if a house connection allows a load of 30 kW in principle, it can be assumed that this capacity is rarely fully utilized, since all electrical consumers in a house are never operated simultaneously. In addition, a certain parallel behaviour of the connected customers will have to be observed, but this will not lead to a complete coverage of demand. This means that even if there will usually be a noticeable peak in the morning because most connected customers start their day, this does not happen at the same time or, for purely practical reasons, the demand of certain commercial enterprises does not "start" until after the households have "got up". The resulting mixing has a potentially

11 Rather, § 46 No. 10 MsbG authorizes the Federal Government by ordinance without the consent of the Federal Council, insofar as it is necessary for market communication to function with intelligent metering systems or to strengthen the role of the metering point operator in terms of competition, to meet the "requirements for the communicative integration and operation of metering points with interruptible (sic! here, the legislator has overlooked its own legal amendment by way of the MsbG, it should have been called "controllable" here too) to set up consumption facilities in accordance with § 14a of the Energy Industry Act and to stipulate that communicative connection and control must take place exclusively via the smart meter gateway". Until the regulator makes use of this right, controls based on other technical solutions remain possible, even if an intelligent metering system has been installed at the point of delivery in question – at least for as long as and to the extent there is no (bilateral) agreement in accordance with § 14a EnWG. 12 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 12 (publication planned for 2018). 13 Haubrich, Electrical power supply systems. Technical and economic contexts, 1996.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

cost-reducing effect in the network infrastructure, because the network elements that are located in front of the house connections (cables, transformers, lines) are not designed for the sum of the potential full load of all connected customers but are dimensioned for the expected simultaneous maximum load.14 In principle, it can be assumed that an existing electrical grid has a substantially fixed capacity limit resulting from the technical load limits of the installed network elements,15 whereby in general the element with the lowest capacity will act as a limiting factor. If this is the cable laid in the street or its cross-section, it becomes clear that an expansion of capacity (laying of a wide, parallel cable) is possible, but cost-intensive and time-consuming.16 This capacity limit can be extended by technical measures (e.g. controllable transformers etc.) and is also dependent on environmental variables (e.g. the external temperature of overhead lines). However, above a certain additional capacity requirement, the grid must be expanded as the last possible measure if a control system according to § 14a EnWG is no longer able to cushion the load peaks and requirements. The decisive factor here is not the individual needs of an individual customer, but the simultaneous needs of the other customers in a local network line. However, it is clear that the possibility of controlling certain (in the somewhat distant future the overwhelming number of) demanders makes it possible to refrain from expanding network capacity. The control opens up the possibility of influencing the simultaneous maximum load by switching actions (of the DSO) inducing certain time-shiftable consumption devices to cover their electricity requirements not at the time of the maximum load but before or after and thus relieve the network infrastructure. The technical connections outlined above may have been an essential starting point for the legislator's considerations to open up control potentials with § 14a EnWG.17 However, a purely "load-avoiding" grid control system can fall short where an electricity system is characterised by massive decentralised feed-ins. The reason for this is that the (simultaneous) output of the available generation plants in particular (in this case mainly photovoltaic, but also wind) is less mixed than is the case with the demand

14 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 14 (publication planned for 2018). 15 Even beyond the capacity limit described here as "fixed", network elements can theoretically be operated at short notice such as however only at the price of higher wear or a shorter service life. 16 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 15 (publication planned for 2018). 17 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 16 (publication planned for 2018).

6

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

for electricity.18 It can be assumed that (apart from shading phenomena) all photovoltaic systems in a certain small area, such as a low-voltage grid, are affected simultaneously and comparatively evenly by the sun's radiation and thus more or less simultaneously reach their production peak or have a high simultaneity factor. With the socalled "Spitzenkappung" or 3 percent rule, which has been inserted within the framework of the German Electricity Market Act (Strommarktgesetz) in § 11 Sentence 2 EnWG and which allows the DSO to "cap" generation plants in accordance with the EEG, the legislator has now taken account of this circumstance. In such cases, the traditional flow of electricity in the grid can be reversed, i.e. the energy does not flow from the higher grid levels in the direction of low voltage, but rather from the low or medium voltage in the direction of the higher grid levels (oversupply of the grid level).19 Due to the increased uniformity and the fact that the average output of a photovoltaic roof system can be higher than the average demand load of a household, there is an increased probability that critical network elements will be overloaded.20 In an electrical system with a highly decentralised generation structure, there may therefore be an increasing technical interest in connections for at least two reasons. As long as the performance of the laid cable is not the limiting factor, it can be helpful if loads can be activated in the immediate vicinity of a photovoltaic system in order to prevent overloading of a critical grid element or to alleviate voltage problems. Coordinated connection may also be necessary to prevent all systems that have previously satisfied a certain "shutdown command" from returning to the grid at the same time and thus, if necessary, driving capacity. Some shortcomings previously associated with the concept of “interruptibility”, accompanied by explanations by the legislator only on the switch-off (and not on the “switchability”) of consumption installations in the original justification of the law, are likely to have been remedied at the conceptual level by means of which controlled connection is also possible. It will therefore be necessary to come to the conclusion, and this should also be laid down in an ordinance to § 14a, that the necessary reflection of a coordinated switch-off or switch-on that relieves the network must always be a switch-on or switch-off that is also coordinated or at least moderated, but in any case, not purely spontaneous.21 If this is "competitively" accompanied by

18 Cf. Angenendt/Boesche/Franz, RdE 2011, 117; Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 17 (publication planned for 2018). 19 Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 18 (publication planned for 2018). 20 The regulations of §§ 20, 20a EEG address all more or less the following problems described above. If the grid expansion is oriented to the possible peak load of a PV system, including if this is rarely achieved, more needs to be expanded than if the need is only for a frequent actually reached load (about 80 % at the network connection point). 21 Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 18 (publication planned for 2018).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

variable tariffs within the meaning of § 40 Paragraph 5 EnWG, such offers can contribute to an intelligent grid utilisation, for example by rewarding the electricity purchase during windy times.22 In § 14a sentence 2 EnWG it is defined that electric vehicles (EV) are also "valid" as controllable consumption devices within the meaning of the regulation. According to § 2 No. 1 of the German Charging Station Ordinance (“Ladesäulenverordnung”, LSV) Charging Post Ordinance, an electric vehicle is a pure battery-powered electric vehicle or an externally rechargeable hybrid electric vehicle of categories M1 and N1 within the meaning of Annex II Part A of Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5.9.2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers and of systems, components and separate technical units for such vehicles (Framework Directive).23 The vehicles mentioned are thus addressed which are connected to the electrical grid at least temporarily for the purpose of recharging their battery – i.e. an electric storage of a known size – and are considered in this function as controllable consumption devices within the meaning of § 14a sentence 1 EnWG. This is therefore a statutory presumption rule which, at least insofar as and as long as this regulation is not legally qualified, is intended to ensure that all vehicles that are capable of being externally charged electricity from the public supply network benefit from reduced network charges. The legislator therefore formulates here a legal fiction which, without further clarifying regulations in an ordinance, means that electric vehicles are to be regarded as controllable consumption devices in principle, irrespective of whether the vehicles or the charging infrastructures used by them can actually be controlled or not. In fact, depending on the technical charging concept, the actual ability to moderate the charging process will rather be located in the charging infrastructure. The question therefore arises as to whether the term "electric vehicle" as addressee is not blurred, since the operator of the charging point (CPO) is actually addressed. The contract for handling the control action (network flexibility) exists between the DSO or a third party and the CPO (= consumption facility). The contracting party will therefore not be the individual vehicle but the operator of the loading facility, even if the charging point operator needs the vehicle in the event of an increase in load (i.e. connection), so that consumption can be controlled at all. However, the DSO or the third party only knows the CPO as a "static device". The "vagabonding" vehicle users (company

22 BT-Drs. 17/6072, p. 73 f. 23 OJ L 263, 9.10.2007, p. 1, last amended by Directive 2013/15/EU (OJ L 158, 10 OJ L 263, 9.10.2007, p. 1, as last amended by Directive 2013/15/EU (OJ L 158, 10.6.2013, p. 172); vehicles of category N2 as defined in Annex II, Part A to Directive 2007/46/EC are covered, provided that they may be driven within the country with a category B license.

8

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

vehicles, users of a publicly accessible loading facility in a car park/in a parking lot) are unknown to him. Even in cases where the charging point operator and vehicle user coincide in one person, as is the case in a detached house, the vehicle actually connected is irrelevant (e.g. private or company car, guests). In all cases, therefore, the vehicle user is irrelevant to the distribution system operator, he does not know it, cannot know it and does not need to know it.24 Even in cases where the meter is in the cable ("stray measuring point"), there is no 1:1 connection between vehicle and cable, so even this exception does not really carry. Apart from this special case, the DSO/third party can only control the charging point (switching on, switching off, and throw down the charging process) or have it controlled by a supplier. Regardless of this, the option of sending signals to vehicle users who want to reserve a charging point as to whether the charging torque is cheaper or less expensive remains. However, this is irrelevant for the actual load management, i.e. the intervention actions of § 14a EnWG. Like the guest of a household customer, the vehicle user remains invisible under energy law. If actual "double contracts" were required (one contract between the Network Statement or a third party and the attachment point operator and one contract between the Network Statement/third party and the vehicle user on load control, i.e. two contracts on the same contract content), an insolvable conflict of responsibilities would arise during control in the specific control case due to these double contracts.25 In order to avoid such conflicts, a clarification in the planned § 14a-EnWG Legal Ordinance (Load Management Regulation) would be appropriate, according to which it is made clear that in accordance with § 3 No. 25 EnWG and § 2 No. 3, 2nd sentence MsbG ("to purchase for the operation of charging points for the supply of electric vehicle users") final consumers in the sense of the RVO is only the charging point operator. The next amendment to the law, which also affects the EnWG, could clarify in the fiction of § 14a sentence 2 EnWG that the "charging points for electric vehicles" are addressed. In this respect, with regard to the actual location of the technical equipment, which ensures load management in the sense of restricted charging, a first clarifying wording is recommended in the regulation to be issued. This means that a reduction in charges should also be determined by the load management of the loading infrastructure.26 According to this understanding, the CPO should receive the fee reduction. The latter receives the reduced charges directly when the charging point operator coincides with

24 Cf. Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 20 (publication planned for 2018). 25 Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 22 (publication planned for 2018). 26 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 23 (publication planned for 2018).

9

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

the connection user or would pass them on to the vehicle user via the electric mobility provider (EMP) in the case of semi-public charging with longer waiting times, for example. It makes sense for the vehicle owner and not the respective vehicle user to pay a reduced charging infrastructure usage fee as a reward for his participation in load control. However, this is part of the price management of the EMP, so it is not mandatory. There is therefore an urgent need to sharpen up that the charging point operator is actually the actual addressee of the fiction for the control of electric vehicles addressed in § 14a EnWG. In the event of a throttle/shutdown, it should be ensured that a minimum State of Charge (SOC) of e.g. 3 kW is guaranteed to the vehicle user. In other words, if he returns home in the evening with his vehicle and one assumes that the vehicle is not almost fully charged from the charging process at the employer, but that it has a longer driving distance behind it, one will have to contractually guarantee him that among all other controlled consumption systems (such as f. e. heat pump, storage system and/or PV) available to the connection user, his vehicle will first be loaded onto the SOC. According to the original justification of the law, the legislature intended to clarify the fiction in favour of electric vehicles, to which particular importance is attached.27 In the opinion of the legislator, this is due on the one hand to the not insignificant grid-loading potential of electric vehicles, and on the other hand the danger is seen that in special situations the low-voltage grid can be brought to its performance limits in individual areas by simultaneous charging of a plurality of electric vehicles, which makes intelligent control necessary. Finally, it is stated that electric vehicles do not fall under the favourable regulation of § 118 EnWG for fixed storage facilities and therefore do not benefit from the suspension of network charges for "new" storage facilities formulated therein.28 § 14a sentences 3, 4 EnWG initially authorises the Federal Government, with the approval of the Federal Council, to specify the obligation for DSO from § 14a sentences 1 and 2 EnWG by means of a legal ordinance. This possibility of enacting concrete regulations is aimed in particular at a framework for the reduction of grid charges and the contractual design of the corresponding agreements between grid operators, suppliers and, if applicable, end consumers (in case of electromobility the CPO and EMP). If one looks at the contractual relationships in the application cases of §14a EnWG, there are always at least three participants whose intentions and actions must be coordinated with one another. These are the DSO, the end consumer (in case of

27 See BT-Drs. 17/6072, p. 73 f. 28 Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 24 (publication planned for 2018).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

electromobility the CPO and EMP) and their supplier. This also applies, mind you, if the final consumer has concluded a grid usage contract with the DSO himself, since in this case the customer will often be a performance-measured customer whose supplier will not be prepared to bear any deviations in the balance resulting from the switching operations. Similarly, a supplier who holds the grid usage contract can only increase the corresponding switching potential by addressing end users who have so-called rolled-in contracts in order to equip corresponding systems there in such a way that it is possible to switch or interrupt them.29 The regulation gives the suppliers the opportunity to better integrate interruptible consumption facilities into an attractive tariff offer. The reduction in grid charges has to/can lead to consumers with interruptible consumption facilities being able to make particularly attractive contractual offers for the supply of electricity. Control actions within the meaning of the regulation are generally limited to shutdowns and reductions in power consumption in cases where transmission capacities are lacking. This possibility for suppliers is supported by the MsbG insofar as the legislator has specified balancing for systems according to § 14a EnWG (independent of the respective annual power consumption) by way of meter reading measurement, i.e. in 1/4h time slots (cf. § 55 Sentence 1 No. 3 MsbG in conjunction with §12 and § 18 Strom-NZV). This precise tracking of the actual consumption quantities replaces the previous profileoriented supply of such systems in low voltage and enables and requires a procurement of electricity based on actual consumption. This in turn, however, is the key to any kind of popularity that is more strongly oriented towards the actual conditions on the electricity market. This increases the forecasting risk from the suppliers' point of view.30 It should also be noted that the provision of § 29 Paragraph 1 EnWG, at least as long as and insofar as no corresponding ordinance has been issued, only leads to binding installation cases within the meaning of the MsbG if a (bilateral or trilateral) agreement with reference to § 14a EnWG has actually been concluded between the above-mentioned parties. This is unlikely to be the case for the majority of low-voltage systems that can be switched on today, as the corresponding agreements are significantly older than § 14a EnWG. These so-called "tariff circuits" are often arrangements that already existed within the framework of BTOElt.31

29 Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 29 (publication planned for 2018). 30 This creates the legal requirements for variable electricity products. However, it remains to be seen whether these will also prove to be to the economic advantage of suppliers and final consumers over time. 31 Cf. Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 30 (publication planned for 2018).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

It can be assumed that – although the justification for § 14a EnWG does not contain any references to this complex of questions – the legislature has assumed that the intensity of competition between suppliers is generally high enough in the meantime to prevent unfavourable arrangements from arising in the first place from the point of view of the customers concerned or to drive them out of the market relatively quickly. One argument in favour of "taking into account" the competitive effects by the legislator or a conscious attempt to stimulate competition in certain segments through the regulation is not least that the justification speaks very well of the fact that the "reduction of grid charges (...) leads to the fact that consumers with controllable consumption facilities can be made particularly interesting contracts for the supply of electricity". The scope for such (supplier) contracts is limited in antitrust law with regard to both the time commitment (maximum two years) and prices (no discriminatory or abusive prices).32 Next, the draft bill of the original version of § 14a EnWG provided that the control of the systems is to be granted for a "longer period of time". This requirement was not included in the final legal text – probably to avoid misunderstandings, to curb excessive hopes on the part of suppliers, but above all to make it clear that antitrust law should not be annulled. In the past, there have been several complaints that heat customers in particular are not faced with a sufficient range of possible supplies. § 14a EnWG could now remedy this and comparable plants.33 Even if the structure of the legal relationships between the parties currently still appears unclear and has deliberately been left to a detailed regulation by the legislator within the framework of the regulation to be issued, § 14a EnWG already makes a number of relevant preliminary decisions that are shaping the emerging regime. In the legal ordinance authorization (sentence 3), the amendment of 2016 formulated more precisely that, in order to specify sentences 1 and 2, "control actions are to be named", "which are reserved for the grid operator and control actions are to be named", "which are reserved for third parties, in particular for the supplier". Classification into "direct" and "indirect", as in the original version, is no longer made here. With regard to the audio frequency ripple controls used today, it can be determined that these are usually operated either by the DSO himself or by a (network service) company

32 See Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 31 (publication planned for 2018). 33 Cf., for example, BT-Drs. 16/13354 "Answer of the Federal Government to the small inquiry of the delegates Gudrun Kopp, Michael Kauch, Jens Ackermann, further delegate and the parliamentary group of the FDP – Drucksache 16/13239 – in which it is also mentioned that "a change of the current supplier for final consumers is in principle possible (is), however for "heat storage current" (so-called night current storage heaters) and heat pump current often not realizable because of lack of appropriate offers", ibid. p. 2.

12

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

commissioned by the network operator. In this respect, the case that a third party carries out the control at the request of the network operator is by no means unusual. Since it cannot be assumed that the final consumers are always present when their consumption devices draw electricity from the grid and can thus cause peak loads, an automatic system using the intelligent measurement system (iMSys) will in any case be the rule if the prescriber issues a corresponding regulation. The DSO and the third party will have to meet certain minimum technical requirements. These concern on the one hand the switching device itself, but also its communicative connection. However, in the latest amendments to the EnWG and EEG, as well as in the MsbG, the legislator must refrain from determining control via the intelligent measurement system as the only possible alternative. Rather, with a view to the control regulation complex, the regulations seem to be characterized by the realization that many detailed questions still arise here.34 What are the consequences of competition between the DSO and other market players for the use of flexibility? It can be determined that there is no obligation on the part of suppliers and end consumers with a grid usage contract to enter into a contract.35 This means that corresponding potential for grid relief can be offered to the DSO but does not have to be. Against this background, it can be assumed that a flexibility contracted to the DSO is also (only) in such access for the time being. However, this does not necessarily mean that they are thus excluded from any other possible use, because the DSO will be forced to name its interventions or restrictions in terms of time but also in other dimensions with some advance notice. At the same time, the interventions of the DSO must also be subject to a maximum, i.e. the network must also be expanded in the future if certain bottlenecks begin to severely restrict the benefit of final consumers from network use.36 It can therefore be assumed that at least some of the systems remain outside the control of the grid operator and have the potential for market-optimised control, which is explicitly desired by the legislator. However, this will necessarily have to take certain restrictions on the part of the DSO into account, as it cannot be expedient to initially 34 It should also be noted that the BSI TR 3109-1 as an essential technical document on the SMGW, which was made legal by the MsbG, does not (yet) regulate the "control" application case or certain regulations still prevent a meaningful implementation of the control via the SMGW. For example, it cannot currently be guaranteed that a switching signal transmitted by the secured channel (TLS) of the SMGW, which is followed by a technical device in the customer's system, will also lead to a change in tariffing in the SMGW. 35 Cf. Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 38 (publication planned for 2018). 36 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 30 (publication planned for 2018).

13

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

contract potential for grid-relieving control of consumption facilities only to have to expand the grid if the control potential is used commercially in such a way that grid expansion becomes unavoidable after all. It appears indicated that the restriction to "consumables" in § 14a EnWG may be extended in future to generation plants, only in this way can PV systems on the one hand and consumption systems such as heat pumps, charging devices and storage systems on the other be optimized controlled in a somewhat distant future (2030?). It is therefore appropriate that the legislator also requires a connection to an intelligent measuring system for generating systems with an output of more than 7 kW to be connected to the electrical grid in accordance with § 29 sentence 1 No. 2 MsbG. This regulation, which was found verbatim in § 21c Abs. 3 EnWG (old version), consisted of the legal justification at that time, since "it (....) can supply the operator of the distribution network with important data from which load conditions of the network can be derived, which can contribute to optimised network operation".37 The legislator sees the regulation as a necessary supplement to the own consumption privilege laid down in the EEG and as an important pioneer for standardised, mass-commercial communication with regard to small generation plants.38 In the case of an extension of § 14a EnWG, it must be borne in mind that producers do not pay grid fees in the current market model; in other words, they would not have any advantages to expect from a reduced fee.39 This could be a further reason for addressing the consumption systems via flexibility premiums instead of a real reduction in network charges (see below). A further extension of the wording appears to be indicated: if this has so far been explicitly limited to the low-voltage network, it will in future also appear to indicate that the consumption and generation systems at the medium-voltage level have been recorded. The previous limitation to the low-voltage level is understandable on the one hand, since many interruptible consumption devices (especially heat applications) that exist today are installed in small and very small final consumers, which in turn are often connected to the electrical grid in the low voltage. On the other hand, it should be noted that the benefit that a network operator can derive from the interruption of a consumption facility increases with its size (more precisely its load at the time of the peak load). Larger consumers, if in principle they can be interrupted, therefore also have greater potential to relieve the network.40

37 See BT-Drs. 17/6072, p. 79. 38 Cf. BT-Drs. 17/6072, ibid. 39 Whether there could also be negative charges and whether these could be considered as a reduction of a zero charge is not discussed here for the time being. 40 So, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 48 (publication planned for 2018) and in the previous editions.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

However, with regard to very large units (industrial plants, etc.) directly connected to the transmission grid or the subordinate 110 kV grid, it must be noted with regard to § 13 sec. 1 No. 2 EnWG (market-related measures) that these have already contracted their shutdown potential to a TSO, if applicable.41 In this respect, the legislator has to a certain extent made a preliminary decision in the combination of the regulations in such a way that the higher loads, if applicable, inherent potential is rather "allocated" to the TSOs or can first be used by them for the safety and reliability of the electricity supply system. It must therefore be asked whether medium-voltage still has potential that has not yet been addressed, which is to be affirmed.42 The wording ("countermove") makes it clear that the management is based on a mutual transaction in which the respective duties of the parties are synallagmatically opposed. One party (DSO) grants certain "customers" a reduced charge, which is reflected by the customers as part of the electricity price to be paid to the supplier, provided that the other party (owner of the consumption equipment) allows one party in return and technically enables it to influence the behaviour of certain (larger) fully interruptible electrical appliances.43 The provision obliges the DSO to grant a reduced grid fee for each installation to those suppliers and consumers with whom they have concluded grid usage contracts and who – without being legally obliged to do so – make it technically possible to control their interruptible consumption facilities. According to the wording, DSO have to charge a "reduced network charge", i.e. if they are granted the control of a consumer device by a customer, they are obliged ("have to charge...") to charge only a reduced network charge, which is part of the electricity price to be paid by the customer. This is a legal obligation, because if the conditions are met, the DSO no longer has any room for negotiation.44 Any other interpretation would contradict the explicit wording. However, this obligation to charge a reduced fee only applies if all conditions for the offence have actually been met.

41 See also the key issues paper "Redispatch" BK6-11-098. 42 Cf. Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 49 (publication planned for 2018). 43 So also, Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 51 (publication planned for 2018). 44 See Franz/Boesche, in Säcker, Berliner Kommentar zum EnWG, 4th edition, § 14 marginal 51 (publication planned for 2018).

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

Relevant use cases The members of the Task Force on Load Management,45 chaired by the author, agree that private charging (charging at home overnight and at the employer during the day) is the focus of a controlled, peak load-avoiding charging process and the associated electricity consumption from renewable energy plants while avoiding high shutdown rates. In addition, some constellations of the public charging are also suitable, but primarily only in those designs which were described as "semi-public" before the definition of the publicly accessible charging point was taken up by the LSV (§ 2 No. 7), and only in those cases in which there are longer standing times. This means loading at publicly accessible loading points with longer standing times in car parks, at the airport, at railway stations, at the lantern overnight (the latter is subordinate to the public shop). These are suitable for cushioning the midday and evening peaks for participation in load management. In terms of load management, it therefore makes sense to differentiate between short standing times with short loading times in public road space (with higher tariffs), which are not or only to a very limited extent relevant for controlled load management and long/long standing and loading times, on which the focus of controlled loading lies. In the latter cases it is irrelevant whether they are publicly accessible or private charging points within the meaning of the LSV. The use of such charging points can be additionally stimulated by attractive tariffs. The so-called yellow phase of the BDEW traffic light model is regarded by the members of the task force load management mentioned as being in the focus of § 14a EnWG. According to the BDEW discussion paper "Electric mobility as a use case of the traffic light concept" of 19 April 2018, "in the yellow traffic light phase, the interaction phase, (...) a grid bottleneck is emerging in a defined network segment. DSO remedy this by calling on flexibility offered by market participants and contractually contracted on the network. There is interaction between market participants and the DSO. In addition, the market can continue to make systemic and market-based use of the remaining flexibility".46 One of the purposes of § 14a EnWG is to prevent the entry of the "red phase" in the "yellow phase". Load management with the legal consequence of a permanently reduced network charge or a flexibility premium even in the "red phase" is therefore not seen by the members of the Task Force Load Management. In exceptional cases, DC charging processes can also be controlled, e.g. if interruptions in charging processes

45 The Task Force on Load Management is a sub-group of the Law Section of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology's "ICT for Electromobility III" (www.ikt-em.de). 46 BDEW discussion paper "Electromobility as a use case of the traffic light concept" (19 April 2018), p. 3, see also Fig. 1 and 2 Fig. 7 shows that the control signal in the yellow phase comes from the supplier or aggregator, i.e. from the market. This is a key distinction from the red phase. The yellow phase is preventive (with the market), the red phase is curative.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

for five minutes are considered reasonable, even if the DC customer expects fast (charging) charging and non-surprising obstacles, e.g. when charging on the motorway. For the fast locomotion he also pays accordingly. Customer acceptance (acceptance of waiting times, fear of range) must be taken into account from the outset, but in the long term there may also be changes in customer behaviour (readiness, certain restrictions in the sense of contributing to the general goal of the climate protection contribution of electric vehicles). Nowadays, when all petrol pumps are full, customers are also prepared to wait. However, the waiting times in these cases rarely exceed five minutes, so that the acceptance threshold may be reached. Long standby/charging times = Focus on load management publicly accessible charging points private charging points ("semi-public") Loading for many hours during the day Loading at home ("overnight"), loading and possibly also overnight in car at the employer ("loading by day") parks, at the airport, at railway stations, at street lanterns overnight, in hotel parking lots Source Graphic: Dr. Katharina Vera Boesche

Outline of a possible “Target Model 2030” For 2030, the German government expects a market penetration of 6 million electric vehicles (EV), which corresponds to 12 % of all motor vehicles. This assumption is based on the ideal assumption that, in addition to the electric vehicle, the customer also has feeders (photovoltaic system without EEG support) and other "loads" such as a heat pump, storage and PV system. The customer can be a homeowner, the tenant of a residential house / apartment building, the operator of loading facilities at the workplace or the operator of loading facilities in a vehicle or commercial park. In this target picture, a network user with a stationary storage facility or a generation plant and a local energy management system (EMS) is accepted. Here, the DSO does not directly regulate the power consumption of individual systems (charging point, heat pump), but the EMS is responsible for maintaining the currently maximum possible grid supply/the maximum possible grid feed-in by means of appropriate regulation. By means of a pre-setting, the customer determines at the EMS which systems, e.g. electric vehicle (EV), heat pump (WP) etc., are to be supplied with priority in the event of a bottleneck. For example, it can be specified that the vehicle is loaded first on arrival

17

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

up to a defined minimum SOC (state of charge). It is important to reverse the decisionmaking authority: it is not the EMS that allocates the output; the plants take the output according to their own decision within the scope of the available output. This does not mean that the system is automatically supplied first, which is named as the ranks first by default. The customer enters the desired state of charge (SOC) and a planned departure time. When the vehicle arrives with an almost empty battery, it is initially charged to the minimum SOC as an instant charge. By the time of departure, this fixed minimum SOC will no longer be undershot.

Market and grid capacity signals The controlling market signals, e.g. in the form of tariff tables over the next 24 hours, are sent to the network connection point (NAP) via the smart meter gateway and taken into account by the EMS. The smart meter gateway also receives the current network capacity in the respective network segment and limits the power supply from the network accordingly by the EMS.

Current flows are shown in orange, communication flows in green.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

Explanations to the graphic: ● There is an intelligent measuring system (iMSys) in the customer's system. Depending on the connection scenario, additional sub-meters (modern measuring equipment) may be necessary. ● The EMS can take over the function of the Controllable Local System Interface (CLS) in the long term without carrying out hard switching operations and is to be regarded as such as part of the intelligent measuring system (iMSys). ● Market signals reach the EMS. ● Communication between SMGW and EMS is still unclear and needs to be standardised. The same applies to communication between the energy market / grid operator and SMGW ● The system combination is scalable. ● Today's radio ripple control is to be replaced, since this does not allow intelligent control ● Present flexibility as a positive benefit for customers. The target system will only work if there is an overall mechanism and not individual control mechanisms for individual components. The assumption that in 2030 there will be a market penetration of 12% of electric vehicles, which may have to pay lower network charges, raises the question of whether other network users will be charged higher network charges and how this discrimination can be justified. It should be borne in mind here that the electrification of the transport sector is a declared political objective. On the other hand, a cause-related apportionment of grid expansion costs caused by electromobility, if applicable, is demanded. Thus, a reversal of the previous logic of § 14a EnWG from the exception to the rule and general case is conceivable. Since the increase in controllable plants has real advantages for the DSO (cushioning peak loads, better forecasts, less grid expansion), grid charges would no longer necessarily increase for the uncontrolled remainder from a stately market penetration in such a normal case of controllable customers. By 2030, not only would grid expansion costs be reduced as a rule if load management were assumed, but the goal of increasing the absorption compatibility of renewable energies and thus reducing feed-in management measures would also be achieved. This is achieved on the one hand by load management of the supply and on the other hand by load management of the storage. All customers would benefit from the reduction of the EEG levy. Intelligent control should be established from a market penetration of 25 % ("mass market"). Before this market penetration is reached, hotspots can still occur and local network bottlenecks ("Zahnarzt-Allee"). The comfort gain of the shop at home instead of at a public gas station is to communicate to customers. Energy sales companies would

19

Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

also have to inform customers about the consequences of purely market-controlled charging control or the permanent availability of charging capacities of up to 22 kW at each household connection at any time. This would mean an x-fold increase in the current distribution network. The customer will have an interest in being controlled. The granting of a reduced grid fee in accordance with §14a EnWG will then become obsolete. If the customer wants a quick load at any time, this is to be granted to him only against a surcharge. This will pay for the necessary grid stabilization measures.

Possible grid usage and pricing scenarios Within the members of the Load Management Task Force mentioned above, Mr. Gunnar Bärwaldt (VW), Mr. Michael Westerburg, Mr. Maximilian von Bose and Mr. Michael Tomaszuk of EWE and the author developed the following possible grid usage and pricing scenarios:

1) "Cap and Pay A minimum value of e.g. 3 kW is always guaranteed as the guaranteed minimum power. Those who want more and more have to pay more (connection upgrading). This would apply to all customers. A grid charge is paid at 3 kW or the increased connected load. 14a EnWG would be unnecessary for the flexible customer ("Flexumer"47) (more than reversal of § 14a EnWG). If an EMS were used as outlined, § 14a EnWG would no longer be required. Additional potential would exist through participation in the flex market (storage offers capacity compared to DSO). This requires intelligent communication, otherwise the EMS can regulate this, i.e. intelligent communication is otherwise not required in case 1.

2) "Cap and Pray" A value of 3 kW is always guaranteed and up to 22 kW is granted at no additional cost unless – assuming a corresponding market ramp-up – a significant number of neighbours in the respective grid topology do so simultaneously. Cap and Pray is focusing on intelligent communication and control. No incentives are granted. Additional potential can be tapped by participating in the flex market (for example, an electrical storage facility offers capacity to a DSO). This would require intelligent communication; otherwise the EMS can regulate this.

47 The term was invented by Gunnar Bärwaldt.

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

3) No Cap or Incentive The willingness to be controllable would be rewarded with an incentive for the contribution to the energy transition. Widespread or even general load management would also result in savings or at least a reduction in grid expansion costs from an economic point of view. From the outset, these would be market signals that are not comparable with the EEG levy, which has acted and is acting as a signal remote from the market.

3a) § 14a EnWG "Status quo" 14a EnWG remains as it is. Due to the fact that the EMS regulates the currently permissible maximum network reference, the entire customer system (total amount of energy of the connection user) receives a reduced network tariff for customer flexibility, irrespective of the frequency of the control processes by the DSO.

3b) Section 14a EnWG "reloaded" The customer receives a one-off investment subsidy. As an incentive, no reduction on the network charge is granted, but a flat rate per event (flex call).

3c) Combination of 3a + 3b The customer receives an investment subsidy for a controllable grid connection for electric mobility. In addition, a reduced network charge is granted.

Recap One of the most exciting challenges of electric mobility is the integration of electric vehicles into the energy supply network. The German Energy Industry Act provides in § 14a EnWG for a regulation according to which electric vehicles are classified as controllable consumption devices in low voltage. In return, the distribution grid operator must grant a reduced grid fee. That is the legal basis. However, it is unclear what the details of the design and implementation of this regulation will and should be. According to the author, the addressed control unit is the charging device and not the electric vehicle. Legislative clarification would be helpful here. According to the author, an extension to renewable energy generation plants and an extension to the medium-voltage level seems to be indicated. Relevant areas of application are above all the charging behaviour at home and at work, i.e. private charging. For longer parking times, charging an electric vehicle may also be relevant in semi-public areas (parking spaces at railway stations, airports) or even in public areas (overnight lantern parking). § 14a EnWG

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Grid integration of electric mobility from the perspective of energy law

covers the so-called "yellow phase" of the BDEW traffic light phases. The purpose is to prevent the "yellow phase" from entering the "red phase". The voluntary nature of the previous version of § 14a EnWG could – as described in the 2030 target model outlined – become an "obligation" if the market ramps up (12 % electric vehicles in 2030). The voluntary exception to load management would then become the rule. Instead of reducing network charges with all their consequences, a simple and manageable lever could be to encourage customers to participate in controlled charging processes through a flexibility premium.

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone Oliver Arnhold, Teamleiter, Dr. Kathrin Goldammer, Norman Pieniak, Katrin Hübner, Jörn Hartmann, Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_10

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone 

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the value chain components  Figure 1: Schematic representation of the value chain components 

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GLEMRWERHPERHPSVHW

4

Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone

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5

 Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone  1IXLSHW 'LEVKMRK MRJVEWXVYGXYVI QYWX JYPJMPP GVMXIVME [LMGL GER FI MR GSRJPMGX 1SXSVMWXW QYWX LEZI WYJJMGMIRX GLEVKMRK STTSVXYRMXMIW EZEMPEFMPMX]  [LMPI XLI PSEH JEGXSV TSVXMSR SJ XSXEPXMQIXLIGLEVKMRKWXEXMSRMWMRYWI QYWXFIEPWSFILMKLIRSYKLXLEXXLIGLEVKMRK TSMRXSTIVEXSVLEWEVIEWSREFPI I\TIGXEXMSRSJVIXYVRSRMXWMRZIWXQIRX%GGSVHMRKP] FSXLWYJJMGMIRXERHHIQERHETTVSTVMEXIGSZIVEKISZIVXLIWIVZMGIEVIEEVIXLIJSGYW +MZIR EHIUYEXI HEXE EMV UYEPMX] TVSFPIQW QE] EPWS FI EHHVIWWIH F] MHIRXMJ]MRK MRJPYIRXMEPWXEOILSPHIVWMRXLIEVIEERHHIXIVQMRMRKSTTSVXYRMXMIWJSVIPIGXVMJMGEXMSR SJ XLIMVJPIIXWERHJEGMPMXMIW )JJMGMIRXTPERRMRK JSVGLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVI I\TERWMSR

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Figure 2: Block diagram of methods applied to identify suitable locations for charging infrastructure 

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone •

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Figure 3: Overview of types of information used by the planning tool

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone

Figure 4: Display of location information for existing charging infrastructure (left) and a suggested location for new infrastructure (right) Figure Display locationinformation informationfor for existing existing charging charging infrastructure forfor new Figure 4: 4: Display of oflocation infrastructure(left) (left)and anda asuggested suggestedlocation location new Figure 4: Display of location for existing charging infrastructure and a suggested for new infrastructure (right) 8LI QSFMPI ZIVWMSR SJinformation XLI TPERRMRK XSSP GER FI YWIH XS(left) WYTTSVX SRWMXIlocation EWWIWWQIRX infrastructure (right) infrastructure (right)

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HIGMWMSRSVIPMQMREXIEWMXIJVSQGSRWMHIVEXMSR HIGMWMSRSVIPMQMREXIEWMXIJVSQGSRWMHIVEXMSR

1SFMPIERHHIWOXSTETTPMGEXMSR 1SFMPIERHHIWOXSTETTPMGEXMSR EZEMPEFPI EZEMPEFPI 8LIXSSPIREFPIWEYXSQEXIHWMXI 1SFMPIERHHIWOXSTETTPMGEXMSR 1SFMPIERHHIWOXSTETTPMGEXMSR 8LIXSSPIREFPIWEYXSQEXIHWMXI SV^SRIMHIRXMJMGEXMSRJSV EZEMPEFPI SV^SRIMHIRXMJMGEXMSRJSV GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIFEWIH 8LIXSSPIREFPIWEYXSQEXIHWMXI 8LIXSSPIREFPIWEYXSQEXIHWMXI GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIFEWIH SRHIJEYPXSVGYWXSQGVMXIVME SV^SRIMHIRXMJMGEXMSRJSV SV^SRIMHIRXMJMGEXMSRJSV SRHIJEYPXSVGYWXSQGVMXIVME GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIFEWIH GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIFEWIH SRHIJEYPXSVGYWXSQGVMXIVME SRHIJEYPXSVGYWXSQGVMXIVME Figure 5: Example display from the mobile application on a smartphone for on-site assessment. (4) Figure 5: Example display from the mobile application on a smartphone for on-site assessment. (4)

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone 6IWIEVGLTSPPMRK ERHUYIWXMSRREMVIW

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Figure 6: Schematic representation of the individual steps in placement of charging infrastructure

6IWYPXW 60-LEWEPVIEH]XIWXIHXLIWIQIXLSHWMRTVIZMSYWTVSNIGXWERHLEHMXWVIWYPXWZEPMHEXIH ERHGSRJMVQIHF]MRHITIRHIRXXLMVHTEVXMIW-REWXYH]GSRHYGXIHJSVXLI+IVQERWXEXI SJ &VERHIRFYVK IPIGXVSQSFMPMX] HIZIPSTQIRX TSXIRXMEP [EW EWWIWWIH YWMRK XLI EREP]XMGLMIVEVGL]TVSGIWW8LIVIWYPXWWLS[IHXLEXXLITSXIRXMEP[EWGLEVEGXIVM^IHF] EHMWXMRGXP]ETTEVIRXKVEHMIRXKSMRKJVSQXLIGSQQYXIVFIPXWYVVSYRHMRK&IVPMRSYXXS XLI VIKMSREP KVS[XL GIRXIVW ERH XLIR JMREPP] XS WTEVWIP] TSTYPEXIH VYVEP EVIEW WII JMKYVI   8LMW EREP]WMW [EW YWIH EW XLI FEWMW JSV XLI WXEXIŭW GLEVKMRK MRJVEWXVYGXYVI TPERRMRK 

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Mobility factors Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone • Number of passenger vehicles per inhabitant Mobility factors Mobility factors Charging infrastructure • Number of passenger • density Number of passenger vehicles per inhabitant vehiclesvehicle per inhabitant Electric ratio • Charging infrastructure Charging infrastructure •• density etc. density Spatial and vehicle population • Electric ratiofactors • Population Electric vehicle ratio development • etc. etc. •• Number of visitors factors Spatial and population and population factors •Spatial Regional growth centers Population development • etc. Population development • Number of visitors • Regional Number of visitors factors •Socioeconomic growth centers Regional per growth centers •• Children household etc. etc. •• Per-capita income Socioeconomic factors Socioeconomic factors Unemployment rate • Children per household Children per household •• Per-capita etc. income • Per-capita income • Unemployment rate Figure 7: Visualization of AHP result for 418 municipalities in Brandenburg • Unemployment rate • etc. • etc. 8LIEWWIWWIHIPIGXVSQSFMPMX]HIZIPSTQIRXTSXIRXMEPEPPS[IHYWXSIWXMQEXIXLIJYXYVI Figure 7: Visualization of AHP result for 418 municipalities in Brandenburg Figure 7: Visualization of AHP result for 418 municipalities in Brandenburg IPIGXVMG JPIIX WM^I MR XLI VIKMSR [LMGL [EW XLIR YWIH XS ETTVSTVMEXIP] HMWXVMFYXI 8LIEWWIWWIHIPIGXVSQSFMPMX]HIZIPSTQIRXTSXIRXMEPEPPS[IHYWXSIWXMQEXIXLIJYXYVI 8LIEWWIWWIHIPIGXVSQSFMPMX]HIZIPSTQIRXTSXIRXMEPEPPS[IHYWXSIWXMQEXIXLIJYXYVI WXERHEVHGLEVKMRKTSMRXWFIX[IIRXLIMRHMZMHYEPQYRMGMTEPMXMIW *MKYVI  IPIGXVMG JPIIX WM^I MR XLI VIKMSR [LMGL [EW XLIR YWIH XS ETTVSTVMEXIP] HMWXVMFYXI IPIGXVMG JPIIX WM^I MR XLI VIKMSR [LMGL [EW XLIR YWIH XS ETTVSTVMEXIP] HMWXVMFYXI WXERHEVHGLEVKMRKTSMRXWFIX[IIRXLIMRHMZMHYEPQYRMGMTEPMXMIW *MKYVI  WXERHEVHGLEVKMRKTSMRXWFIX[IIRXLIMRHMZMHYEPQYRMGMTEPMXMIW *MKYVI 

Figure 8: Computed distribution of standard charging points among municipalities in Brandenburg

8LI VIWYPXMRK HMWXVMFYXMSR MW EMQIH EX WYTTP]MRK PSRKIVXIVQ TEVOIVW GSQQYXIVW EX Figure 8: Computed distribution of standard charging points among municipalities in Brandenburg Figure 8: Computed distribution of standard charging points among municipalities in Brandenburg

[SVO EX LSQI SV EX 43-W WYGL EW WLSTTMRK GIRXIVW WTSVXW JEGMPMXMIW ERH QYWIYQW  8LI VIWYPXMRK HMWXVMFYXMSR MW EMQIH EX WYTTP]MRK PSRKIVXIVQ TEVOIVW GSQQYXIVW EX 8LI VIWYPXMRK HMWXVMFYXMSR MW EMQIH EX WYTTP]MRK PSRKIVXIVQ TEVOIVW GSQQYXIVW EX [SVO EX LSQI SV EX 43-W WYGL EW WLSTTMRK GIRXIVW WTSVXW JEGMPMXMIW ERH QYWIYQW  [SVO EX LSQI SV EX 43-W WYGL EW WLSTTMRK GIRXIVW WTSVXW JEGMPMXMIW ERH QYWIYQW 

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0SRK TEVOMRK XMQIW NYWXMJ]infrastructure XLI HITPS]QIRX SJ WXERHEVH GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW [MXL PS[ Charging planned right – a new opportunity for everyone 0SRK TEVOMRK XMQIW NYWXMJ] XLI HITPS]QIRX SJ WXERHEVH GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW [MXL PS[ GLEVKMRKTS[IV0SRKHMWXERGIXVEZIP[MXLIPIGXVMGZILMGPIWXLVSYKLVYVEPEVIEWVIUYMVIW 0SRK TEVOMRK XMQIW NYWXMJ] XLI HITPS]QIRX SJ WXERHEVH GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW [MXL PS[ GLEVKMRKTS[IV0SRKHMWXERGIXVEZIP[MXLIPIGXVMGZILMGPIWXLVSYKLVYVEPEVIEWVIUYMVIW JEWX GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW WMRGI QSXSVMWXW [MPP RSX EGGITX PSRK FVIEOW [LMPI MR XVERWMX GLEVKMRKTS[IV0SRKHMWXERGIXVEZIP[MXLIPIGXVMGZILMGPIWXLVSYKLVYVEPEVIEWVIUYMVIW JEWX GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW WMRGI QSXSVMWXW [MPP RSX EGGITX PSRK FVIEOW [LMPI MR XVERWMX (ITPS]QIRXSJJEWXGLEVKMRKWXEXMSRW[MXLEXPIEWXO;GLEVKMRKTS[IV[EWVIWIVZIH JEWX GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW WMRGI QSXSVMWXW [MPP RSX EGGITX PSRK FVIEOW [LMPI MR XVERWMX (ITPS]QIRXSJJEWXGLEVKMRKWXEXMSRW[MXLEXPIEWXO;GLEVKMRKTS[IV[EWVIWIVZIH JSV VYVEP EVIEW 8LI WXEXMSRW [IVI TPEGIH MR WYGL E [E] EW XS EWWYVI E QE\MQYQ (ITPS]QIRXSJJEWXGLEVKMRKWXEXMSRW[MXLEXPIEWXO;GLEVKMRKTS[IV[EWVIWIVZIH JSV VYVEPJVSQ EVIEW 8LI WXEXMSRW [IVI TPEGIH WYGLGLEVKIV E [E] EW XS EWWYVI QE\MQYQ HMWXERGI ER] TSMRX MR &VERHIRFYVK XSMR E JEWX SJ  OQ ERHEXLYW IREFPI JSV VYVEP EVIEW 8LITSMRX WXEXMSRW [IVI TPEGIH MR WYGLGLEVKIV E [E]SJ EW XSOQ EWWYVI E QE\MQYQ HMWXERGI JVSQ ER] MR &VERHIRFYVK XS E JEWX ERH XLYW IREFPI PSRKHMWXERGIXVEZIPMRER]HMVIGXMSRMRXLIWXEXI%GGSVHMRKXSXLI2ELZIVOILVWWIVZMGI HMWXERGI JVSQ ER] TSMRX MR &VERHIRFYVK XS E JEWX GLEVKIV SJ  OQ ERH XLYW IREFPI PSRKHMWXERGIXVEZIPMRER]HMVIGXMSRMRXLIWXEXI%GGSVHMRKXSXLI2ELZIVOILVWWIVZMGI 7EGLWIR%RLEPX XLI VIKMSREP XVERWMX EYXLSVMX] SJ 7E\SR]%RLEPX  XLMW MW XLI QE\MQYQ PSRKHMWXERGIXVEZIPMRER]HMVIGXMSRMRXLIWXEXI%GGSVHMRKXSXLI2ELZIVOILVWWIVZMGI 7EGLWIR%RLEPX XLI VIKMSREP XVERWMX EYXLSVMX] SJ   7E\SR]%RLEPX  XLMW MW XLI QE\MQYQ HMWXERGI GSRWMWXIRX [MXL ŰGSZIVEKI WIGYVMX]ű 9WMRK XLMW PMQMXMRK GSRHMXMSR [I

7EGLWIR%RLEPX XLI VIKMSREP XVERWMX EYXLSVMX] SJ   7E\SR]%RLEPX  XLMW MWGSRHMXMSR XLI QE\MQYQ HMWXERGI GSRWMWXIRX [MXL ŰGSZIVEKI WIGYVMX]ű 9WMRK XLMW PMQMXMRK [I HIXIVQMRIH XLEX  PSGEXMSRW JSV JEWX GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW [IVI WYJJMGMIRX XS IRWYVI HMWXERGI GSRWMWXIRX ŰGSZIVEKI WIGYVMX]ű  WXEXMSRW 9WMRK XLMW GSRHMXMSR [I HIXIVQMRIH XLEX  [MXL PSGEXMSRW JSV JEWX GLEVKMRK [IVIPMQMXMRK WYJJMGMIRX XS IRWYVI GSQTPIXIMRMXMEPGSZIVEKI JMKYVI  HIXIVQMRIH XLEX  PSGEXMSRW JSV JEWX GLEVKMRK WXEXMSRW [IVI WYJJMGMIRX XS IRWYVI GSQTPIXIMRMXMEPGSZIVEKI JMKYVI  GSQTPIXIMRMXMEPGSZIVEKI JMKYVI 

Figure 9: Draft plan for an initial fast charging infrastructure Figure 9: Draft plan for an initial fast charging infrastructure

2I\XEHIXEMPIHGLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVITPER[EWHVEJXIHJSVXLIWXEXIGETMXEP4SXWHEQ 2I\XEHIXEMPIHGLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVITPER[EWHVEJXIHJSVXLIWXEXIGETMXEP4SXWHEQ Figure 9: Draft plan for an initial fast charging infrastructure EKEMR IQTPS]MRK WSGMSIGSRSQMG XVEJJMG ERH MRJVEWXVYGXYVI GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW 4SMRXW SJ EKEMR IQTPS]MRK WSGMSIGSRSQMG XVEJJMG ERH MRJVEWXVYGXYVI GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW 4SMRXW SJ 2I\XEHIXEMPIHGLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVITPER[EWHVEJXIHJSVXLIWXEXIGETMXEP4SXWHEQ -RXIVIWX [IVI EPWS MRGPYHIH MR XLI EREP]WMW ERH LIPTIH KYMHI XLI I\EGX TPEGIQIRX SJ -RXIVIWX [IVI EPWS MRGPYHIH MR XLI EREP]WMW ERH LIPTIH KYMHI XLI I\EGX TPEGIQIRX SJ EKEMR IQTPS]MRK WSGMSIGSRSQMG XVEJJMG ERH MRJVEWXVYGXYVI GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW 4SMRXW SJ GLEVKMRK TSMRXW 4EVOMRK PSXW ERH KEVEKIW FSXL EFSZI ERH FIPS[ KVSYRH [IVI GLEVKMRK TSMRXW 4EVOMRK PSXW ERH KEVEKIW FSXL EFSZI ERH FIPS[ KVSYRH [IVI -RXIVIWX [IVI EPWS MRGPYHIH MR XLI EREP]WMW ERH LIPTIH KYMHI XLI I\EGX TPEGIQIRX SJ GSRWMHIVIH EW GERHMHEXI PSGEXMSRW JSV GLEVKMRK MRJVEWXVYGXYVI 8LI EREP]WMW WLS[IH GSRWMHIVIH EW GERHMHEXI PSGEXMSRW JSV GLEVKMRK MRJVEWXVYGXYVI 8LI EREP]WMW WLS[IH GLEVKMRK TSMRXW 4EVOMRK PSXW ERH KEVEKIW FSXL EFSZI ERH FIPS[ KVSYRH [IVI WYMXEFPI PSGEXMSRW MR XLI MRRIV GMX] RIEV JVIUYIRXP] ZMWMXIH 43-W FYX EPWS MR HIWMVEFPI WYMXEFPI PSGEXMSRW MR XLI MRRIV GMX] RIEV JVIUYIRXP] ZMWMXIH 43-W FYX EPWS MR HIWMVEFPI GSRWMHIVIH EW GERHMHEXI PSGEXMSRW JSV GLEVKMRK MRJVEWXVYGXYVI 8LI EREP]WMW WLS[IH RIMKLFSVLSSHW % RYQFIV RYQFIV SJ SJ XLIWI XLIWI WYKKIWXIH WYKKIWXIH RIMKLFSVLSSHW ERH ERH RI[ RI[ VIWMHIRXMEP VIWMHIRXMEP WYFHMZMWMSRW WYFHMZMWMSRW % WYMXEFPI PSGEXMSRW MR XLI MRRIV GMX] RIEV JVIUYIRXP] ZMWMXIH 43-W FYX EPWS MR HIWMVEFPI RIMKLFSVLSSHW ERH RI[ VIWMHIRXMEP WYFHMZMWMSRW % RYQFIV SJ XLIWI WYKKIWXIH

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PSGEXMSRW[MPPRS[VIGIMZIRI[GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIMRXLIMQTPIQIRXEXMSRTLEWISJ Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone PSGEXMSRW[MPPRS[VIGIMZIRI[GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIMRXLIMQTPIQIRXEXMSRTLEWISJ XLIWXEXIGETMXEPŭWWXVEXIK] PSGEXMSRW[MPPRS[VIGIMZIRI[GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIMRXLIMQTPIQIRXEXMSRTLEWISJ XLIWXEXIGETMXEPŭWWXVEXIK] PSGEXMSRW[MPPRS[VIGIMZIRI[GLEVKMRKMRJVEWXVYGXYVIMRXLIMQTPIQIRXEXMSRTLEWISJ XLIWXEXIGETMXEPŭWWXVEXIK] XLIWXEXIGETMXEPŭWWXVEXIK]

Figure 10: Evaluation of city districts for charging infrastructure development potential and placement of charging  Evaluation of city districts for charging infrastructure development potential and placement of charging stations Figure 10:  Evaluation of city districts for charging infrastructure development potential and placement of charging stations Figure 10: ;IJSYRHEWXVSRKGSVVIWTSRHIRGIFIX[IIRXLIPSGEXMSRWMHIRXMJMIHF]XLITPERRMRK stations Figure 10: Evaluation of city districts for charging infrastructure development potential and placement of charging ;IJSYRHEWXVSRKGSVVIWTSRHIRGIFIX[IIRXLIPSGEXMSRWMHIRXMJMIHF]XLITPERRMRK stations XSSPERHXLIPSGEXMSRWWYKKIWXIHMRETSPPGSRHYGXIHF]XLIQYRMGMTEPKSZIVRQIRX8LI

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Charging infrastructure planned right – a new opportunity for everyone

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Commercial buildings and the grid in the advent of electric vehicles: challenges and opportunities – exploring possibilities for commercial buildings and facilities to sustainably host public EV charging infrastructures Delphine Clement, Segment Manager Mobility Louis Shaffer, Segment Manager, Distributed Energy John Robb, Segment Manager, Commercial and Industrial Buildings EMEA, Eaton

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018 J. Liebl (Hrsg.), Netzintegration der Elektromobilität 2018, Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-23393-8_11

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Commercial buildings and the grid in the advent of electric vehicles: challenges … Introduction Introduction The advent advent of of EVs EVs will will be be aa game game changer changer for for all all The parties involved involved in in energy energy production, production, distribution distribution and and parties consumption. Potential Potential stakeholders stakeholders that that decide decide to to consumption. host smart, smart, sustainable sustainable charging charging infrastructure infrastructure can can host reap numerous numerous business business and and revenue revenue opportunities. opportunities. reap This whitepaper whitepaper addresses addresses the the impact impact that that electrical electrical This vehicle (EV) (EV) growth growth will will have have on on future future power power demand, demand, vehicle both on on distribution distribution systems systems and and behind behind the the meter meter in in both commercial commercial premises premises facilitating facilitating EV EV charging charging infrastructure. infrastructure. Approaches Approaches to to meeting meeting these these demands demands in in sustainable sustainable and and scalable scalable ways ways are are considered. considered. While EVs EVs today today account account for for only only a a small small share share of of new new While car sales, sales, significant significant growth growth is is forecast forecast by by analysts, analysts, car investment banks banks and and policy policy institutes. institutes. This This uptake uptake is is investment supported by by the the public public and and governments governments as as part part of of supported wide-ranging efforts efforts to to reduce reduce transportation transportation wide-ranging emissions and and improve improve air air quality. quality. However, However, meeting meeting emissions the expected expected massive massive growth growth in in EVs EVs means means investing investing the to ensure ensure there there is is adequate adequate charging charging infrastructure infrastructure in in to public places. places. If If EV EV adoption adoption rates rates are are to to be be sustained, sustained, public more rapid rapid chargers chargers will will need need to to be be sited sited in in key key more locations to to allow allow convenient convenient battery battery top-ups top-ups whether whether locations one is is on on aa long long drive drive or or just just running running errands. errands. one The impact impact of of EV EV charging charging on on electricity electricity grids grids – – The especially distribution distribution systems systems – – needs needs to to be be especially considered ahead ahead of of an an envisaged envisaged EV EV tipping tipping point, point, to to considered alleviate the the need need for for considerable considerable grid grid reinforcement reinforcement alleviate expenses that that will will otherwise otherwise require require billions billions of of Euros Euros expenses of investment investment over over the the next next decades. decades. Smart Smart policies policies of and deployment deployment of of enabling enabling technologies technologies are are a a core core and consideration in in this this respect, respect, as as they they have have the the consideration potential to to significantly significantly mitigate mitigate grid grid stability stability potential problems resulting resulting from from an an EV EV upsurge, upsurge, while while at at problems the same same time time bringing bringing new new business business opportunities. opportunities. the Energy storage, storage, for for example, example, can can reduce reduce peaks peaks from from Energy charging, and and the the cars cars themselves themselves can can even even charging, support the the grid. grid. Additionally, Additionally, smart, smart, two-way two-way electrical electrical support charging infrastructure infrastructure can can match match the the surplus surplus in in charging renewables generation generation with with EV EV charging, charging, contributing contributing renewables to the the decarbonisation decarbonisation of of mobility. mobility. Operators Operators of of to facilities with with carparks carparks can can be be expected expected to to provide provide facilities fit-for-purpose, public public EV EV charging charging capability, capability, powered powered fit-for-purpose, by clean clean energy energy generation. generation. Investment Investment will will be be paid paid by back through through reduced reduced cost cost of of electricity, electricity, revenue revenue from from back supporting the the grid, grid, and and increased increased loyalty loyalty from from supporting customers who who value value being being able able to to top-up top-up their their EVs EVs at at customers such locations. locations. such

The EV EV tipping tipping point point is is approaching approaching The The convergence convergence of of EV-friendly EV-friendly policies, policies, increasing increasing The availability and and affordability affordability of of electric electric cars cars is is availability accelerating the the EV EV boom. boom. According According to to Bloomberg Bloomberg accelerating New Energy Energy Finance Finance (BNEF), (BNEF), EVs EVs and and hybrid/plug-in hybrid/plug-in New vehicles are are expected expected to to account account for for over over 10% 10% of of new new vehicles

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car car sales sales in in less less than than aa decade, decade, equal equal to to global global annual annual sales sales of of 10 10 million million units units (see (see figure figure 1). 1).

Annual global global light light duty duty Annual vehicle sales sales vehicle

Figure1. Figure1.

Million cars cars per per year year Million

ICE Engine) sales sales ICE (Internal (Internal Combustion Combustion Engine) % of new new EV EV sales sales % of EV sales sales EV

Source: Bloomberg Bloomberg New New Energy Energy Finance Finance Source:

Considerations Considerations going going into into this this forecast forecast include: include: 1. 1. Falling Falling battery battery costs. costs. These These are are reflected reflected in in lower lower EV EV sales sales prices, prices, with with the the prediction prediction being being that that average average lithium-ion lithium-ion battery battery prices prices (cells (cells and and packs packs combined combined costs) costs) will will fall fall by by more more than than 45% 45% by by 2025, 2025, to to $109kWh $109kWh (see (see Figure Figure 2). 2).

Lithium-ion Lithium-ion battery battery pack pack prices, prices, historical historical and and forecast forecast $/kWh $/kWh 1000 1000 900 900 800 800 700 700 600 600 500 500 400 400 300 300 200 200 100 100 00

2025 average average 2025 lithium-ion lithium-ion battery price: price: battery $109kWh $109kWh

Figure2. Figure2.

2030 average average 2030 lithium-ion lithium-ion battery price: price: battery $73kWh $73kWh

2010 2012 2012 2014 2014 2016 2016 2018 2018 2020 2020 2022 2022 2024 2024 2026 2026 2028 2028 2030 2030 2010 BNEF observed observed valuaes: valuaes: annual annual lithium-ion lithium-ion battery battery BNEF price index index 2010-16 2010-16 price

Source: Bloomberg Bloomberg New New Energy Energy Finance Finance Source:

2. 2. Policies, Policies, incentives incentives programs programs and and urban urban emissions emissions regulations. regulations. Like Like UK UK and and France France or or London London and and Copenhagen Copenhagen ,, several several more more European European countries countries or or cities cities are are considering considering the the possibility possibility of of introducing introducing an an ICE ICE ban ban or or phase-out. phase-out. Most Most of of the the countries countries in in Europe Europe are are using using incentives incentives on on EV EV purchase, purchase, registration registration tax tax or or on on infrastructure infrastructure to to facilitate facilitate the the uptake uptake of of EV EV and and meet meet EU EU 2025 2025 CO2 CO2 emissions emissions targets. targets.

Commercial buildings and the grid in the advent of electric vehicles: challenges … 3. Positive consumer experience. The effect this can have on driving EV sales should not be 3. Positive consumer experience. The effect this can underestimated. New car models are able to have on driving EV sales should not be travel further between charges and owners fully underestimated. New car models are able to appreciate the benefits of driving cleaner, quieter, travel further between charges and owners fully responsive cars that cost less to run and maintain. appreciate the benefits of driving cleaner, quieter, that costFor lessvery to run and maintain. 4. responsive Supply chaincars bandwidth. practical reasons, the global automotive industry will not 4. Supply chain bandwidth. For very practical be able to sustain supply chains indefinitely for reasons, the global automotive industry will not both ICE and electric vehicles. As manufacturers be able to sustain supply chains indefinitely for gradually commit to more EV product lines and both ICE and electric vehicles. As manufacturers total operating cost of EV is more and more gradually commit to more EV product lines and competitive, the trend will be reinforced and likely total operating cost of EV is more and more accelerated also. competitive, the trend will be reinforced and likely accelerated also.

The need for investment in charging infrastructure The need for investment in charging infrastructure ICE car owners take for granted that a petrol station is within easy driving distance – a convenience factor ICE car owners take for granted that a petrol station turned into a deterrent when considering EV is within easy driving distance – a convenience factor alternatives at the current state of EV infrastructure turned into a deterrent when considering EV support. The public charging infrastructure thus needs alternatives at the current state of EV infrastructure to be extensive if consumers are going to embrace support. The public charging infrastructure thus needs the e-mobility transition and governments are going to to be extensive if consumers are going to embrace successfully decarbonise transportation. the e-mobility transition and governments are going to successfully decarbonise transportation.

Even with rapid chargers and the next generation of super-fast chargers, EVs will need to be plugged in Even with rapid chargers and the next generation of for many minutes to charge, as future models will super-fast chargers, EVs will need to be plugged in have bigger batteries to enable ranges of up to several for many minutes to charge, as future models will hundred kilometres on a full charge. Any public place have bigger batteries to enable ranges of up to several where cars are parked for at least 5-20 minutes could hundred kilometres on a full charge. Any public place potentially install chargers and reap numerous where cars are parked for at least 5-20 minutes could benefits: from retaining existing customers and potentially install chargers and reap numerous attracting new ones, to increasing dwell time (i.e. how benefits: from retaining existing customers and long a customer spends at an establishment), to imattracting new ones, to increasing dwell time (i.e. how proved sustainability credentials and positive branding long a customer spends at an establishment), to imand PR opportunities. All of these factors drive reveproved sustainability credentials and positive branding nue creation. and PR opportunities. All of these factors drive revenue creation. Obvious initial sites for chargers include petrol stations and service stations, offering cafés, shops and Obvious initial sites for chargers include petrol stations restaurants. Tesla has been a first mover in this sense, and service stations, offering cafés, shops and installing its network of Superchargers at such restaurants. Tesla has been a first mover in this sense, locations. Charging infrastructure can also be installed installing its network of Superchargers at such at carparks serving the widest variety of facilities: locations. Charging infrastructure can also be installed at the widest variety of facilities: • carparks retail andserving entertainment complexes • supermarkets • retail and entertainment complexes • airports and railway stations • supermarkets • sports stadiums and fitness centres • airports and railway stations • universities and government buildings • sports stadiums and fitness centres • commercial offices • universities and government buildings • hotels • commercial offices • fleet depots • hotels • fleet depots

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