Handbook of American Indian Languages Vol. 2

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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

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BOSTON PUBLIC

UBRARY

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION iVS.-.

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY

'

BULLETIN

40



HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES BY

FRANZ BOAS

PART

2

WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SKETCHES By

EDWARD SAPIE, LEO J. FRACHTENBERG, AND WALDEMAR BOGORAS

WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 19 2 2

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BOSTOH

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Smithsonian Institution,

Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C, February 20, 1911. Sir: I have the honor to submit for pubUcation, subject to your

approval, as Bulletin 40, Part 2, of this Bureau, the manuscript of a portion of the Handbook of American Indian Languages, prepared under the editorial supervision of Dr. Franz Boas.

Yours, respectfully, F.

W. Hodge,

Ethnologist in Charge.

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. in

CONTENTS Pago

The Takelma language of southwesteru Oregon, by Edward Sapir Coo8, by Leo J. Fracbtenberg Siualawaa (Lower Umpqua), by Leo J. Fracbtenberg Ohukcbee, by Waldemar Bogoras

1

297 431 631

THE TAKELMA LANGUAGE OF SOUTH WESTERN OREGON BY

EDWARD

3045°— Bull.

40,

pt

2—12

1

SAPIE

CONTENTS Page 1.

§

Introduction

2-24. § 2.

7

Phonology

8

Introductory

8

Vowels

10

General remarks System of vowels

10

§ 4. § 5.

Stress

§§ 3-11. § 3.

10

and pitch-accent

15

§§ 6-11. Vocalic processes

22

§ 6.

Vowel hiatus

22

§ 7.

Dissimilation oi u

24

§ 8.

/-umlaut K-sounds preceded by tf-vowels

27

§ 9.

24

§ 10.

Inorganic a

§ 11.

Simplification of double diphthongs

29

Consonants § 12. System of consonants § 13. Final consonants §§ 14-17. Consonant combinations § 14. General remarks § 15. Initial combinations § 16. Final combinations § 17. Medial combinations _ §§ 18-24. Consonant processes § 18. Dropping of final consonants § 19. Simplification of doubled consonants § 20. Consonants before x

31

28

§§ 12-24.

n

and

Dissimilation of

§ 22.

Catch dissimilation Influence of place and kind

§ 23.

/

35

36 36 36 38 39 41 41 42

44

m

§ 21.

to

31

of

45 47

accent on manner of articula-

48 51

tion § 24. ^

25-115. § 25.

Inorganic h

Morphology

52

Introductory

52

§ 26.

Grammatical processes General remarks

§ 27.

Prefixation

§ 28.

Suffixation

§ 29.

Infixation

§§ 26-32.

Reduplication Vowel-ablaut § 32. Consonant-ablaut §§33-83. I. Theverb § 33. Introductory §§ 34-38. 1. Verbal prefixes § 34. General remarks § 35. Incorporated nouns § 36. Body-part prefixes § 37. Local prefixes § 38. Instrumental wa-

55 55 55

56 56 57

§ 30.

59 62

§ 31.

63

_

63 64 64

66 72 86 91 3

4

CONTENTS

—Continued.

§§ 25-115. Morphology

The verb—Continued.

§§ 33-83. I.

Page

§ 39.

Formation of verb-stems General remarks

§ 40.

Types

§§ 39, 40. 2.

92 92

of stem-formation

95 117

§§ 41-58. 3. Verbal suffixes of derivation § 41.

General remarks

§ 42.

Petrified suffixes

117 118

Frequentatives and usitatives §§ 44-51. Transitive suffixes § 44. General remarks

127

§ 43.

135

135

Causative -(a) nComitative -(a) giv-

135

§ 46. § 47.

Indirective -d-

141

§ 48.

Indhective

{a') Id-

§ 49.

Indirective

-(a^)

§ 50.

Indirective -{a)n (an)- "for"

145

§ 51.

Indirect reflexive -giva-

148

§ 45.

137

(-S-)

143

md-

144

§§ 52-57. Intransitive suffixes

§ 54.

General remarks Active intransitive Reflexive -gwi-.

§ 55.

Reciprocal

§ 56.

Non-agentive

§ 57.

Positional

§ 52.

§ 53.

-i

149

149 150

-xa-

152

yan-

152

-x-

153

»'-

155

Impersonal -iau§§ 59-67. 4. Temporal-modal and pronominal elements § 58.

156

157

§ 59.

Introductory

157

§ 60.

Intransitives, class 1

160

§ 61.

Intransitives, class II

164

§§ 62-66. Transitives, class III

167

§ 62.

General remarks

167

§ 63.

Transitive subject pronouns

170

§ 64.

172

§ 65.

Connecting -x- and -iForms without connecting vowel

§ 66.

Passives

180

mixed class, class IV Auxiliary and subordinating forms

Verbs

§ 67.

§§ 68-72. 5.

of

177 181

184

§ 68.

Periphrastic futm'es

§ 69.

Periphrastic phrases in na{g)- "do, act "

186

§ 70.

Subordinating forms

189

Conditionals

§ 71. §

Uses

72.

§§ 73-83. 6. §

73.

§ 74.

184

196

of potential

and

inferential

199

Nominal and adjectival derivatives

201

Introductory

201

Infinitives

201

§§ 75-78. Participles

204

§ 76.

General remarks Active particij^le in

§ 77.

Passive participle in -(a)^"^,

§ 78.

Passive participle in -zap' {-sap')

207

Nouns

208

§ 75.

§§ 79-82.

of

agency

§ 79.

Introductory

§ 80.

Nouns

of

204

204

-t'

agency in -(ays

-i'i'"'

205

208 208

.

CONTENTS §§ 25-115.

Morphology

—Continued.

The verb—Continued

§§ 33-83. I.

Page

§§ 73-83. 6. Nominal and adjectival derivatives §§ 79-82. Nouns of agency Continued.



Nouns of agency in § 82. Nouns of agency in 83. Forms in -Vya II. The noun § 81.

§

§§ 84-102.

5

-sii,

— Continued.

-sda

209

210 210

-xi

210

Introductory

§ 84.

210

Nominal stems General remarks Types of stem formation

§§ 85, 86.

214

1.

§ 85.

§ 86.

Noun

214 215

derivation

221

§87. Derivative suffixes

221

§§ 87, 88. 2.

Compounds

§ 88. § 89.

225

Noun-characteristics and pre-pronominal

3.

§§90-93.

-x-

Possessive suffixes

4.

General remarks

231

§ 91.

232

§ 92.

Terms of Schemes

§ 93.

Possessives with pre-positives

relationship II

and III

235

237

§§ 94-96. 5. Local phrases

241

§ 94.

General remarks

241

§ 95.

Pre-positives

242

§ 96.

Postpositions

243

Post-nominal elements § 97. General remarks § 98. Exclusive -t'a § 99. Plural -/an (-han, -L'cm) §100. Dual-diZ § 101. -m'^£ every §

6.

102. Deictic -=a^

§§ 103-105. III. §

103.

§

104.

§ 105.

The

246

246 246

247 249 249

250

The pronoun

251

Independent personal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns and adverbs Interrogative and indefinite pronouns

§§ 106-109. IV.

adjective

251.

252 254

255

General remarks

255

§ 107.

Adjectival prefixes

256

§ 108.

Adjectival derivative sufiixes

§

§

106.

109. Plural formations

§§ 110, 111. V. § 110.

258

262

Numerals

264

Cardinals

Numeral adverbs 112-114. VI. Adverbs and §

264 266

111.

particles

267

§112. Adverbial suffixes § 113. Simple adverbs

267

§ 114.

272

Particles

§115. VII. Interjections §

231

§ 90.

§§ 97-102.

§§

227

116. Conclusion

Appendix A:

1. 2.

Comparative table of pronominal forms Scheme of seven voices in six tense-modes

Forms of na(!7)-"say, do" Appendix B Specimen texts with analysis 3.

:

270 278 281

284 285 286 291

;

THE TAKELMA LANGUAGE OF SOUTHWESTERN OREGON By Edward

§ 1.

Sapir

INTRODUCTION

The language treated in the following pages was spoken in the southwestern part of what is now the state of Oregon, along the middle portion of Rogue river and certam of its tributaries. It, together with an upland dialect of which but a few words were

The form "Takelma"

obtained, forms the Takilman stock of Powell. of the

word

DaP'gelma'^n

is

practically identical with the native

those dwelling along the river

there seems to be no good

reason for departing

name

of the tribe,

(see below, § 87, 4)

from

it

in favor of

Powell's variant form.

The

linguistic material

language

Ushed by

is

on which

this

based consists of a series of

the University of

account of the Takelma

myth and

other texts, pub-

Pennsylvania (Sapir, Takelma Texts,

Anthropological Publications of the University

Museum,

vol.

ii,

no.

1,

Philadelphia, 1909), together with a mass of grammatical material

(forms

and sentences) obtained

in connection

with the texts.

A

series of eleven short medicine formulas or charms have been pub-

lished with interlinear

and

can Folk-Lore (xx, 35-40)

free translation in the .

A

Journal of Ameri-

vocabulary of Takelma verb, noun,

and adjective stems, together with a certain number of derivatives, will

be found at the end of the "Takelma Texts."

script notes

H. H.

on Takelma, collected in the summer of 1904 by Mr.

St. Clair, 2d, for the

my

been kindly put at mainly

two

Bureau

disposal

of lexical material, they

points.

Some manu-

of

American Ethnology, have

by the Bureau though ;

these consist

have been found useful on one or

References like 125.3 refer to page and line of

Takelma Texts.

my

Those in parentheses refer to forms analogous to

the ones discussed.

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY

8

The author's material was gathered of a month and a

Oregon during a stay also

My

at the Siletz reservation of

half in the

Bureau

summer

of 1906,

of

American Ethnology.

informant was Mrs. Frances Johnson,

an elderly full-blood

under the direction

Daldani^Jc',

Rogue

course of

of

the

Her native place was the

Takelma woman. of

[bdll. 40

village of

DakHslasin or

on Jump-off-Joe creek (DlpIoltsH'lda), a northern affluent her mother having come from a village on the upper

river,

Cow

creek (Hagwal).

Despite her imperfect

command

of

the English language, she w^as found an exceptionally intelligent

and good-humored informant, without which

qualities the following

study would have been far more imperfect than

it

necessarily

must

be under even the very best of circumstances.

In conclusion I must thank Prof. Franz Boas for his valuable advice in regard to several points of interest in the progress of the work.

It

method and is

for his active

due largely to him that I

was encouraged to depart from the ordinary rut of grammatical description and to arrange and interpret the facts in a manner that seemed most in accordance with the

spirit of the

Takelma language

itself.^

PHONOLOGY §

In

its

(§§2-24)

Introductory

2.

general phonetic character, at least as regards relative harsh-

ness or smoothness of acoustic effect,

Takelma

will

probably be found

to occup}^ a position about midwa}^ between the characteristically

rough languages of the Columbia valley and the North Californian

and Oregon coast (Chinookan,

Salish, Alsea, Coos,

Athapascan, Yurok)

on the one hand, and the relatively euphonious languages of the

Sacramento valley (Maidu, Yana, Wintun) on the other, inclining rather to the latter than to the former.

From

the former group

less Z-sounds (i,

l,^

l!)

and

it

differs chiefly in

of velar stops

the absence of voice-

(g, g,

q!);

from the

latter,

has been learned of the ethnology of the Takelma Indians will be found incorporated in by the author and entitled Notes on the Takelma Indians of Southwestern Oregon, in A7nerican Anthropologist, n. s., ix, 251-275; and Religious Ideas of the Takelma Indians of Southwestern Oregon, in Journal of American Folk-Lore, xx, 33-49. 2 In the myths, I is freely prefixed to any word spoken by the bear. Its uneuphonious character is evidently intended to match the coarseness of the bear, and for this quasi-rhetorical purpose it was doubtless derisively borrowed from tlie neighboring Athapascan languages, in which it occurs with great frequency. The prefixed sibilant s- serves in a similar way as a sort of sneezing adjunct to indicate the speech of the coyote. Gwi'di where? says the ordinary mortal; Igwi'di, the bear; s-gwi'di, the coyote. 1

two

What

little

articles

§

2

written

TAKELMA

HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES

BOAS]

9

more complex consonantic clusters, limited possibilities, and hardly to be

in the occurrence of relatively

though these are

of strictly

considered as difficult in themselves.

Like the languages of the latter group, Takelma possesses clearcut vowels, and abounds, besides, in long vowels and diphthongs; these, together

ma

with a system of syllabic pitch-accent, give the Takel-

language a decidedly musical character, marred only to some

The

extent by the profusion of disturbing catches.

line of cleavage

between Takelma and the neighboring dialects of the Athapascan stock (Upper Umpqua, Applegate Creek, Galice Creek, Chasta Costa)

is

thus

not only morphologically but also phonetically distinct, despite re-

semblances in the manner of articulation of some of the vowels and consonants.

Rogue

Chasta Costa, formerly spoken on the lower course of the voiceless Z-sounds above referred to

river, possesses all

peculiar illusive

c[!,

the f ortis character of which

as in Chinook; a voiced guttural spirant

the sonants or

weak surds

and

curring

vowel, as in English hut.

its

as in

dj and z (rarely)

spirant p il

7-,

corresponding fortis

^p.';

is

Takelma, which, lq turn, has a complete

North German Tage;

a voiceless interdental

;

and a very frequently labial series

(h,

p\

The

fortis

Takelma vowel is

u,

p!, m),

Ic!,

Takelma, seems in the Chasta Costa to be replaced by

Costa; r

oc-

m Gabial stops occur appar-

ently only in borrowed words, hofi' cat

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